CYTOTOXIC EFFECTS OF FERMENTED AFRICAN LOCUST BEAN SEEDS ON A BREAST CANCER CELL
Keywords:Fermented African locust bean seeds, Breast cancer cell, 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide, Cytotoxicity, iru
Objective: There is a growing scientific evidence of the health-enhancing benefits of fermented food especially in cancer treatment and prevention. Fermented African locust beans (FALB) are a condiment with many medicinal activities and consume in many West African countries. Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women globally. This study investigated the cytotoxicity of FALB extracts on breast cancer (MCF-7) cells overtime and at different concentrations.
Methods: The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to quantify the extent of cytotoxicity of the extracts.
Results: The aqueous extract of FALB had an half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 1.51 and 0.98 mg/mL on exposure for 24 and 48 h, respectively, against MCF-7 cells. Comparatively, the IC50 obtained for the same extract against normal human fibroblasts was 1.90 and 1.37 mg/mL, respectively.
Conclusion: The results obtained here suggest some measure of selective cytotoxicity by the aqueous extract against transformed as compared with normal cells. These findings present an important lead to the usefulness of this condiment in cancer treatment. Further studies are recommended.
Bourdichon F, Casaregola SC, Farrokh JC, Frisvad ML, Gerds WP, Hammes J, et al. Food fermentations: Microorganisms with technological beneficial use. Int J Food Microbiol 2012;154:87-9.
Saleh AS, Zhang Q, Chen J, Shen Q. Millet grains: Nutritional quality, processing, and potential health benefits. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 2013;12:281-95.
Gan R, Li H, Gunaratne A, Sui Z, Corke H. Effects of fermented edible seeds and their products on health: Bioactive components and bioactivities. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 2017;16:489-531.
Odetola AA, Akinloye O, Egunjobi C, Adekunle WA, Ayoola AO. Possible antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic effect of fermented Parkia biglobosa (JACQ) extract in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2006;33:808-12.
Ognatan K, Adi K, Lamboni C, Damorou JM, Aklikokou KA, Gbeassor M, et al. Effect of dietary intake of fermented seeds of Parkia biglobosa (JACQ) Benth (African Locust Bean) on hypertension in Bogou and Goumou-kope areas of Togo. Trop J Pharm Res 2011;10:603-9.
Ayo-Lawal RA, Osoniyi O, Famurewa AJ, Lawal OA. Evaluation of antioxidant and hypolipidaemic effects of fermented Parkia biglobosa (Jacq) seeds in tyloxapol-induced hyperlipidaemic rats. Afr J Food Sci 2014;8:225-32.
Ahmad I, Shagufta J. Recent developments in steroidal and nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitors for the chemoprevention of estrogen-dependent breast cancer. Eur J Med Chem 2015;102:375-86.
Bamodu OA, Huang WC, Tzeng DT, Wu A, Wang LS, Yeh CT, et al. Ovatodiolide sensitizes aggressive breast cancer cells to doxorubicin, eliminates their cancer stem cell-like phenotype, and reduces doxorubicin-associated toxicity. Cancer Lett 2015;364:125-34.
World Health Organization. World Cancer Report 2014. International Agency for Research on Cancer. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, WHO Press; 2015.
American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts and Figures. Atlanta: American Cancer Society; 2017.
Shapira N. The potential contribution of dietary factors to breast cancer prevention. Eur J Cancer Prev 2017;26:385-95.
Wang Y, Xu N, Xi A, Ahmed Z, Zang B, Bai X. Effects of Lactobacillus plantarum MA2 isolated from Tibet kefir on lipid metabolism and intestinal microflora of rats fed on high-cholesterol diet. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2009;84:341-7.
Park KY, Jeong JK, Lee YE, Daily JW. Health benefits of kimchi (Korean fermented vegetables) as a probiotic food. J Med Food 2014;17:6-20.
Kris-Etherton PM, Hecker KD, Bonanome A, Coval SM, Binkoski AE, Hilpert KF. Bioactive compounds in foods: Their role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer. Am J Med 2002;113:71S-88S.
Lawal RA, Osoniyi RO, Rivera G, Elufisan TO. Fermented condiments from melon (Citrullus vulgaris) and African Locust Bean (Parkia biglobosa) seeds-a review. Niger Food J 2016;34:94-104.
Carmichael J, DeGraff WG, Gazdar AF, Minna JD. Evaluation of a tetrazolium-based semiautomated colorimetric assay: Assessment of chemosensitivity testing. Cancer Res 1987;47:936-42.
Alami N, Paterson J, Belanger S, Juste S. Comparative analysis of xanafide cytotoxicity in breast cancer cell lines. Br J Cancer 2007;97:58-64.
Florento L, Matias R, Tuaño E, Santiago K, Cruz F, Tuazon A. Comparison of cytotoxic activity of anticancer drugs against various human tumor cell lines using in vitro cell-based approach. Int J Biomed Sci 2012;8:76-80.
Mosman T. Rapid colorimetric assay for cellular growth and survival: Application to proliferation and cytotoxicity assays. J Immunol Methods 1983;65:55-63.
Fotakis G, Timbrell JA. In vitro cytotoxicity assays: Comparison of LDH, neutral red, MTT and protein assay in hepatoma cell lines following exposure to cadmium chloride. Toxicol Lett 2006;160:171-7.
Kuete V, Tala VR, Mbaveng AT, Silva VC, Rodrigues CM, Nkengfack AE, et al. Catechin derivatives from Parkia biglobosa displayed selective cytotoxicity towards leukemia CCRF-CEM cell line and its P-Glycoprotein expressing subline CEM/ADR5000. Invest Med Chem Pharmacol 2018;1:1-5.
Tavakkol-Afshari J, Brook A, Mousavi SH. Study of cytotoxic and apoptogenic properties of saffron extract in human cancer cell lines. Food Chem Toxicol 2008;46:3443-7.
Kwak CS, Kim MY, Kim SA, Lee MS. Cytotoxicity on human cancer cells and antitumorigenesis of chungkookjang, a fermented soybean product, in DMBA-treated rats. J Nutr Health 2006;39:347-56.
Farhad M, Kailasapathy K, Tamang JP. Health aspects of fermented foods. In: Tamang JP, Kailasapathy K, editors. Fermented Foods and Beverages of the World. United States: Taylor and Francis Group Florida, CRC Press; 2010. p. 391-405.
Tamang JP, Watanabe K, Holzapfel WH. Review: Diversity of microorganisms in global fermented foods and beverages. Front Microbiol 2016;7:377.