Karthikeyan Venkatachalam


Objective: To study in detail the macro and micro morphology including scanning electron microscopy, phyto and physicochemical analysis  along with the trace elements determination (EDAX) of the leaves of Vitis vinifera L. family Vitaceae, which  possesses various bioactive components and many traditional and pharmacologically validated uses in the treatment of many diseases including NTD.

Methods: Macroscopy, microscopy including scanning electron microscopy, physicochemical analysis, preliminary phytochemical screening, Energy dispersive X-ray analysis to determine the various trace elements, and other WHO recommended parameters for standardizations were performed.

Results: Vitis vinifera L. leaves are orbicular-cordate, 5-15cm, more or less deeply, palmately-3-, 5- or 7-lobed, irregularly toothed, glabrescent above, often grey-tomentose beneath, thin membraneous; Microscopic evaluation revealed the presence of ranunculaceous type of stomata in lower epidermis and upper epidermis cell walls are straight polygonal in shape and apostomatic, secretory cells, druses of calcium oxalate crystals, raphide, pearl glands, unicellular trichomes, xylem vessels, phloem, fibres. Vein islet numbers, vein termination numbers, stomatal number, stomatal index and other physicochemical tests like ash values, loss on drying, extractive values were determined. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of sterols, tannins, proteins and amino acids, flavonoids, terpenoids, volatile oil, saponin, carbohydrates and absence of glycosides, alkaloids, fixed oil.

Conclusion: The microscopic analysis using histological identification, microscopic constants and other physicochemical examinations of the leaves of Vitis vinifera L. can be used as a rapid, inexpensive botanical identification technique and is useful in standardization, hence would be of immense value in authentication of the leaf as it was proved to have wide panel of pharmacological and ethno medical use including prevention and treatment of tropical diseases.

| PDF |


Medium-term strategic plan 2008–2013[amended draft] and Proposed programme budget 2010–2011.Geneva, World Health Organization, 2009 (available at http://apps.who.int/gb/e/e_amtsp3.html; accessed on Jan 2013).

Sharma KK, Kotoky J, Kalita JC, Sarma GC. Traditional use of medicinal plants for anti-ringworm therapy in some parts of Kamrup District of Assam, a North Eastern State of India. Asian Pac J Trop Diseases 2012; 2(2): S316-S319.

Periyanayagam K, Jagadeesan M, Kavimani S, Vetriselvan T. Pharmacognostical and Phyto-physicochemical profile of the leaves of Piper betle L. var Pachaikodi (Piperaceae) - Valuable assessment of its Quality. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine 2012:S506-S510.

Anonymous. The Wealth of India Raw materials, Sp-W, Vol X, New Delhi, National Institute of Science communication and information resources (NISCAIR), CSIR; 2005.p. 527-58.

Felicio JD, Santos RS, Goncalez E. Chemical constituents from Vitis vinifera L. (Vitaceae). Arq. Inst. Biol 2001; 68(1):47-50.

Sendogdu N, Aslan M, Orhan DD, Ergun F, Yesilada E. Antidiabetic and antioxidant effect of Vitis vinifera L leaves in streptozotocin – Diabetic rats. Turkish. J. Pharm. Sci 2005; 3(1):7-18.

Singh J, Singh AK, Singh A. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of methanolic extract of Vitis vinifera L leaves. Pharmacologyonline 2009; 3:496-504.

Najmaddin C, Hussin K, Maideen H. Comparative study on the anatomy and palynology of the three variety of Vitis vinifera variety (family Vitaceae). Afr J Biotechnol 2001; 10(74):1686-74.

Kumar KA, Vijayalakshmi K. GC-MS analysis of phytochemical constituents in ethanolic extract of Punica granatum peel and Vitis vinifera seeds. Int J Pharma and Bio sci 2011; 2(4):B461-B468.

Orhan DD, Orhan N, Ozcelik B, Ergun F. Biological activities of Vitis vinifera L leaves. Turk. J. Biol 2009; 33:341-48.

Hawary SE, Fouly KE, Gohary HME, Meselhy KM, Slem A, Talaat Z. Phytochemical and Biological Investigation of Vitis vinifera L. (Flame cultivar), Family Vitaceae Cultivated in Egypt. Nat Sci 2012; 10(10):48-59.

Katalinic V, Mozina SS, Generalic I, Skroza D, Ljubenkov I, Klancnik A. Phenolic Profile, Antioxidant capacity, and Antimicrobial Activity of Leaf Extracts from Six Vitis vinifera L. Varieties. Int .J. Food Properties 2013; 16:45-60.

Singh J, Singh AK, George M, Joseph L. Antiinflammatory and antipyretic activity of Vitis vinifera Leaves extract. T. Ph. Res 2010; 3:172-82.

Abramovic H, Terpinc P, Generalic I, Skroza D, Klancnik A, Katalinic V, Mozina SS. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of extracts obtained from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and vine (Vitis vinifera) leaves. Croat. J. Food Sci. Technol 2012; 4(1):1-8.

Askari GA, Kahouadji A, Mousaddak M, Ouaffak L, Charof R, Menname Z. Evaluation of Antimicrobial activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Leaves of Vitis vinifera collected from different regions in Morocco. American-Eurasian J. Agric. & Environ. Sci 2012; 12(1):85-90.

Patil PB, Patil SB, Naikwade NS. Evaluation of antitumor and antioxidant activity of Vitis vinifera L. against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma induced mice. IJPRD 2011; 3(3):65-72.

Sadaiah B, Kumar KTS, Kavitha CHN, Babu SM, Reddy VP. Antinociceptive activity of methanolic extract of leaves of Vitis vinifera. Der. Pharmacia Sinica 2011; 2(2):190-97.

Kumar CH, Ramesh A, Kumar JNS, Ishaq BM. A Review on hepatoprotective activity of medicinal plants. IJPSR 2011; 2(3):501-15.

Mukherjee PK. Quality control of Herbal drugs- An approach to evaluation of botanicals 1stedn New Delhi, Business Horizon; 2012.

Kunle, FolashadeO,Egharevba, Omoregie H, Ahamadu, Ochogu P. Standardization of herbal medicines-A Review. Int J Biodiver Conser2012; 4(3):101-12.

Asokan J. Botanical microtechnique principles and practice.1stedn. Chennai, Plant anatomy research centre; 2006.

Heywood VH. The Systemics Associations, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Systemics and evolutionary appplications, Proceedings of an International Symposium held at the Department of Botany, 1971. Spl vol.4, University of Reading, Academic Press, London: 1-16.

WHO. Quality control methods for medicinal plant materials. Geneva: World Health Organisation, 1998.

Evan WC. Trease and Evans Pharmacognosy 16thedn, London Saunders Elsevier; 2009, p563-70.

Gokhale SB, Kokate CK. Practical Pharmacognosy. 12thedn, NiraliPrakashan; 2008: p13-19.

Pirzada AJ, Iqbal P, Shaik W, Kazi TG, Ghani KU. Studies on the elemental Composition and antifungal activity of medicinal plant Lippia nodiflora L. Against skin fungi. J. Pak Assoc. Dermat 2005;15: 113-18.

Serrano R, Silva G.da, Silva O. Application of light and scanning electron microscopy in the identification of herbal medicines. In: Mendez vilas A, Diaz J. (eds). Microscopy: Science, Technology, Application and Education. Vol.1, Sapin, Formatex Research Centre; 2010: p182-90.

Kumar S, Kumar V, Om Prakash. Microscopic evaluation and physiochemical analysis of Dillenia indica leaf. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2011; 1(5): 337-40.

About this article





Additional Links

Manuscript Submission


Innovare Journal of Health Sciences
Vol 1 Issue 3 2013 (October-December) Page: 26-31

Online ISSN


Authors & Affiliations

Karthikeyan Venkatachalam


  • There are currently no refbacks.