QUALITY ASSESSMENT PROFILE OF THE LEAVES OF VITIS VINIFERA L. (VITACEAE) â€“ AN IMPORTANT PHYTOTHERAPY COMPONENT OF TROPICAL DISEASES CONTROL
Objective: To study in detail the macro and micro morphology including scanning electron microscopy, phyto and physicochemical analysis Â along with the trace elements determination (EDAX) of the leaves of Vitis vinifera L. family Vitaceae, which Â possesses various bioactive components and many traditional and pharmacologically validated uses in the treatment of many diseases including NTD.
Methods: Macroscopy, microscopy including scanning electron microscopy, physicochemical analysis, preliminary phytochemical screening, Energy dispersive X-ray analysis to determine the various trace elements, and other WHO recommended parameters for standardizations were performed.
Results: Vitis vinifera L. leaves are orbicular-cordate, 5-15cm, more or less deeply, palmately-3-, 5- or 7-lobed, irregularly toothed, glabrescent above, often grey-tomentose beneath, thin membraneous; Microscopic evaluation revealed the presence of ranunculaceous type of stomata in lower epidermis and upper epidermis cell walls are straight polygonal in shape and apostomatic, secretory cells, druses of calcium oxalate crystals, raphide, pearl glands, unicellular trichomes, xylem vessels, phloem, fibres. Vein islet numbers, vein termination numbers, stomatal number, stomatal index and other physicochemical tests like ash values, loss on drying, extractive values were determined. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of sterols, tannins, proteins and amino acids, flavonoids, terpenoids, volatile oil, saponin, carbohydrates and absence of glycosides, alkaloids, fixed oil.
Conclusion: The microscopic analysis using histological identification, microscopic constants and other physicochemical examinations of the leaves of Vitis vinifera L. can be used as a rapid, inexpensive botanical identification technique and is useful in standardization, hence would be of immense value in authentication of the leaf as it was proved to have wide panel of pharmacological and ethno medical use including prevention and treatment of tropical diseases.
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