Following vaccination, Japanese encephalitis (JE) circumstances in Lakhimpur, Assam
Background: Assam is positioned as the most vulnerable state for Japanese encephalitis (JE) infection. It contributes more than 51% of total JE positive cases reported in the country during the year 2014. A study was carried out in Lakhimpur district of Assam to observe the incidence of AES/JE after vaccination.
Methods: During January to December 2014, a total of 96 numbers of acute encephalitis cases (AES) were reported from Lakhimpur district of Assam. Of which, 27.08% (26/96) cases were found in the below 15 years age group. Blood samples were collected from AES patients and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay method was done for detection of JE IgM antibody.
Results: The positivity rate for Japanese encephalitis was 22.92%. Initial case of AES was reported on 4th January; however the first JE positive case was detected in 1st July. All age group has been affected; children below 15 years of age groups (13/22) are mostly vulnerable to JE infection. Males are mostly susceptible for AES/JE infection. Maximum 58 numbers of AES cases were reported during the month of July. However, except two, all other JE positive cases were also observed in the month of July. High incidence of AES/JE cases was observed from Boginodi and Nowboicha area. A total of 7 patients expired due to AES/JE, of which 3 cases were JE IgM positive. High positivity rate for JE was observed in Dhalpur and Dhakuakhana area. Maximum case fatality rate for JE was also noticed in Dhalpur and Bihpuria area. All the AES/JE death cases were unvaccinated as they were not present in their locality during the JE vaccination period. However, 36.36% (8/22) JE vaccinated cases were shown JE IgM positive.
Conclusion: High incidence of AES/JE cases occurs due to the presence of large number of domestic pigs, flooding of paddy fields etc.
Keywords: Acute encephalitis syndrome, Japanese encephalitis & Lakhimpur
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