NANOTECHNOLOGY REVOLUTION: RESPIROCYTES AND ITS APPLICATION IN LIFE SCIENCES
Necessity is the mother of inventionâ€. This necessity has made human now to stand at the verge of science. Nano technology is termed as application of science and technology at the nano level. From the many conditions which can do harm to the human body, one of the most fundamental and fast acting is a lack of perfusion of oxygen to the tissue. Insufficient oxygenation can be accoutred by problems with oxygen uptake in the lungs, problems with blood flow in the arteries due to obstruction or problems with oxygen transportation, as with anaemia. Heart attack is the death of part of the heart muscle due to its sudden loss of blood supply. Typically, the loss of blood supply is caused by a complete blockage of a coronary artery by a blood clot .To overcome this, respirocytes are proposed. An artificial nano-medical erythrocyte, or "respirocytes" --intended to duplicate all of the important functions of the red blood cell - provides treatment for anaemia, heart attack, choking, lung diseases, asphyxia, and other respiratory problems. These nano-robots, will be able to keep a patient's tissues safely oxygenated for up to about 4 hours (at maximum dosage) if their heart has stopped beating in case of a heart attack. The simplest possible design for an artificial respirocyte is a microscopic pressure vessel, spherical in shape for maximum compactness made from flawless diamond or sapphire constructed atom by atom.
Key words: nano technology, oxygen uptake, artificial red blood cells- respirocytes, pressure.
Phillips, T (biotech.about.com/od/nanotechnology/a/nanomedicine.htm)
article by Robert A. Freitas Jr. written in 2001. Published on KurzweilAI.net May 20, 2002
Burton AC. The mechanics of the red cell in relation to its carrier function. In: Wolstenholme GEW, Knight J, eds. Circulatory and Respiratory Mass Transport. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1969:67-81
Wisse E. Ultrastructure and function of Kupffer cells and other sinusoidal cells in the liver. In: Wisse E, Knook DL, eds. Kupffer Cells and Other Liver Sinusoidal Cells. New York: Elsevier/North-Holland Biomedical Press, 1977:33-60.
Drexler KE. Nanosystems: Molecular Machinery, Manufacturing, and Computation. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1992.
Porter DI, Goldberg WA. Regulation of erythropoietin production. Exp Hematol 1993; 21:399-404.
Devlin TM, ed. Textbook of Biochemistry with Clinical Correlations. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1986.
Merkle RC. Nanotechnology and medicine. In: Klatz RM, ed. Advances in Anti-Aging Medicine, Vol. 1, Liebert Press, 1996:277-286. (http://nano.xerox.com/nanotech/nanotechAndMedicine.html
Nunn JF. Nunn's Applied Respiratory Physiology, 4th Edition. London: Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., 1993.
Yanagida Y, Fujiwara S, Mizoi Y. Differences in the intercranial pressure caused by a blow and/or a fall -- an experimental study using physical models of the head and neck. Forensic Sci Intl 1989; 41:135-145.
Allen ME, Weir-Jones I, Motiuk DR, Flewin KR, Goring RD, Kobetitch R, Broadhurst A. Acceleration perturbations of daily living: a comparison to whiplash. Spine 1994; 19:1285-1290.
Kale PB, Sklar GE, Wesolowicz LA, DiLisio RE. Fluosol: therapeutic failure in severe anemia.Annals Pharmacotherapy 1993; 27:1452-1454.
Marelli TR. Use of a hemoglobin substitute in the anemic Jehovah's Witness patient. Crit Care Nursing 1994; 14:31-38.
Robalino BD, Marwick T, LaFont A, Vaska K, Whitlow PL. Protection against ischemia during prolonged balloon inflation by distal coronary perfusion with use of an autoperfusion catheter or fluosol. J Amer Coll Cardiol 1992; 20:1378-1384.
Spence RK. The status of bloodless surgery. Transfusion Med Rev 1991; 5:274-286.
Spence RK, Cernaianu AC. Pharmacological agents as adjuncts to bloodless vascular surgery. Seminars Vascul Surg 1994; 7:114-120.
Holman WL, McGiffin DC, Walter VAV, et al. Use of current generation perfluorocarbon emulsions in cardiac surgery. Blood Subst Art Cells Immobil Biotech 1994; 22:979-990.
Hoffer A, Walker M. Smart Nutrients. Garden City Park NY: Avery Publishing Group, 1994.
Pearson D, Shaw S. Life Extension: A Practical Scientific Approach. New York: Warner Books, 1983.
Teicher BA. Use of perfluorochemical emulsions in cancer therapy. Biomaterials Art Cells Immobil Biotech 1992; 20:875-882.
Rockwell S. Perfluorochemical emulsions and radiation therapy, Blood Subst Art Cells Immobil Biotech 1994; 22:1097-1108.
Mason RP, Shukla H, Antich PP. Oxygent: a novel probe of tissue oxygen tension. Biomaterials Art Cells Immobil Biotech 1992; 20:929-932.
Youngson C, Nurse C, Yeger H, Cutz E. Oxygen sensing in airway chemoreceptors. Nature1993; 365:153-155.
Mortensen JD. Intravascular oxygenator: a new alternative method for augmenting blood gas transfer in patients with acute respiratory failure. Art Organs 1992; 16:75-82.
Eichner ER. Blood doping: results and consequences from the laboratory and the field.Phys. Sports Med 1987; 15:121-129
Ekblom B, Berglund B. Effect of erythropoietin administration on maximal aerobic power.Scand J Med Sci Sports 1991; 1:88-93.
Berglund B, Ekblom B. Effect of recombinant human erythropoietin treatment on blood pressure and some haematological parameters in healthy men. J Internal Med 1991; 229:125-130.
Eichner ER. Better dead than second. J Lab Clin Med 1992; 120:359-360.
Costill DL. Endurance performance and aging. Sports Med Digest 1990; 12:7-10.
Brummelkamp WH. Reflections on hyperbaric oxygen therapy at 2 atmospheres absolute for Clostridium welchii infections. In: Ledingham I, ed. Hyperbaric Oxygenation. London: Churchill Livingstone, 1965.
Thom SR. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy. J Int Care Med 1989; 4:58-63.
Rentko VT. Red blood cell substitutes. Prob Veterinary Med 1992; 4:647-651.
Dodds WJ. Blood substitutes. Adv Veterinary Sci Comp Med 1991; 36:257-290.
Robert A. Freitas Jr. (1998). "Exploratory Design in Medical Nanotechnology: A Mechanical Artificial Red Cell". Artificial Cells, Blood Substitutes, and Immobil. Biotech. (26): 411â€“430.