SIMILE BETWEEN THE MODUS OPERANDI OF ANALGESIA OF TRAMADOL AND POISON OAK (RHUS TOXICODENDRON) ON FIBROMYALGIA
Fibromyalgia is a disorder characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain accompanied by fatigue, sleep, memory and mood issues.Â Symptoms sometimes begin after a physical trauma, surgery, infection or significant psychological stress. In other cases, symptoms gradually accumulate over time with no single triggering event.
Women are much more likely to develop fibromyalgia than are men. Many people who have fibromyalgia also have tension headaches, temporo-mandibular joint (TMJ) disorders, irritable bowel syndrome, anxiety and depression.
Fibromyalgia is one of the most common chronic pain conditions. The disorder affects an estimated 10 million people in the U.S. and an estimated 3-6% of the world population. While it is most prevalent in women - 75-90 percent of the people who have fibromyalgia are women - it also occurs in men and children of all ethnic groups. The disorder is often seen in families, among siblings or mothers and their children. The diagnosis is usually made between the ages of 20 to 50 years, but the incidence rises with age so that by age 80, approximately 8% of adults meet the American College of Rheumatology classification of fibromyalgia.
While there is no cure for fibromyalgia, a variety of medications can help control symptoms.Â In general, treatments for fibromyalgia include both medication and self-care. The emphasis is on minimizing symptoms and improving general health. Medications can help reduce the pain of fibromyalgia and improve sleep. Common choices include: Analgesics (Tramadol). In this article we like to discuss on the similarity of action between the analgesic medicine (Tramadol) and the homoeopathic medicine Poison oak (Rhus toxicodendron) on fibromyalgia from the aetiopathogenetic point of view. Poison oak, a wild growing plant of the anacardiacea family is widely distributed and easily accessible and also a very common Homoeopathic remedy as Rhus toxicodendron.
1. Mease P. Fibromyalgia syndrome: review of clinical presentation, pathogenesis, outcome measures, and treatment. J Rheumatol Suppl. 2005;75:6-21.
2. Imbierowicz K, Egle UT. Childhood adversities in patients with fibromyalgia and somatoform pain disorder. Eur J Pain. 2003;7(2):113-9.
3. Crofford LJ. Neuroendocrine abnormalities in fibromyalgia and related disorders. Am J Med Sci. 1998;315(6):359-66.
4. Moldofsky H, Scarisbrick P, England R, Smythe H. Musculosketal symptoms and non-REM sleep disturbance in patients with "fibrositis syndrome" and healthy subjects. Psychosom Med. 1975;37(4):341-51.
5. MÃ¼ller EE, Locatelli V, Cocchi D. Neuroendocrine control of growth hormone secretion. Physiol Rev. 1999;79(2):511-607.
6. Reid GJ. Textbook of Endocrinology. 8th ed. Edited by Wilson JD, Foster MD. Philadelphia: W.B. Sanders; 1992.
7. Cyril AK, Eric N, Norman J. Samson Wrightâ€™s Applied Physiology. 13th ed. Oxford University Press; 1982;9:518-519.
8. Neeck G, Riedel W. Hormonal perturbations in fibromyalgia syndrome. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1999; 876:325-38; discussion 339:325-338.
9. Katakami H, Arimura A, Frohman LA. Involvement of hypothalamic somatostatin in the suppression of growth hormone secretion by central corticotropin-releasing factor in conscious male rats. Neuroendocrinology. 1985;41(5):390-3.
10. Armstrong RB, Warren GL, Warren JA. Mechanisms of exercise-induced muscle fibre injury. Sports Med. 1991;12(3):184-207.
11. Available at: http://www.rxlist.com/ultram-drug.htm. Accessed November 17, 2014.
12. Available at: http://www.rxlist.com/ultram-drug/clinical-pharmacology.htm. Accessed November 17, 2014.
13. Available at: http://waynesword.palomar.edu/ww0802.htm. Accessed November 17, 2014.
14. Gardner, D. G. Shoback, D. Greenspanâ€™s Basic & Clinical Endocrinology.9th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Education. 2011.
15. Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Catecholamine. Available at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Catecholamine. Accessed November 17, 2014.
16. Baer H, Watkins RC, Kurtz AP, Byck JS, Dawson CR. Delayed contact sensitivity to catechols. II. Cutaneous toxicity of catechols chemically related to the active principles of poison ivy. J Immunol. 1967;99(2):365-9.
17. Hahnemann, S. Organon of Medicine. 5th and 6th Edition. New Delhi: B. Jain Publishers Pvt. Ltd;2000.
18. Available at: http://www.naturalnews.com/028696_fibromyalgia_remedies.html. Accessed November 17, 2014.
19. Hughes R. A Manual of Pharmacodynamics. 6th ed. NewDelhi: B. Jain Publishers Pvt.ltd.;2005.