SEROPREVALENCE OF IMMUNOGLOBULINIgG ANTIBODY RESPONSETO PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUMMEROZOITE ANTIGENS AMONG CHILDREN IN MINNA, NORTH CENTRAL, NIGERIA
Malaria is still a major cause of severe illness which is responsible for millions of deaths, mostly in children under 5 years old.A major problem to malaria vaccine production is the identification of protective epitopes and respective protective antibody. A cross sectional study was carried out in a representative cohort of children in Minna aged 6 months to 17 years in order to determine the correlation between IgG antibody responses to Plasmodium falciparummerozoite antigens. Plasma samples from 93 children were exposed to Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) for the measurement of immunoglobulin IgG antibody production against P. falciparum. There was a high seroprevalence of IgG antibody against P. falciparum antigens tested with 74.20%. The seroprevalence for the male category was quite higher as compared with that of the female category, though, analysis using Mann-Whitney U test revealed IgG antibody response to P. falciparum infection in the male was significantly different as compared to the female category (p<0.05). Furthermore, the prevalence of IgG antibody against P. falciparumantigen increased with age, with the lowest observed in 6 months to 5 years 66.66%.Kruskal-Wallis H test showed a non-significant difference in the production of IgG antibody againstP. falciparum antigen between differentcohorts, and no correlation exists between them (p>0.05). An evidence of more than 50% was found for the production of IgG antibody by sub-microscopic parasite. On the other hand, microscopically positive P. falciparum samples recorded more seroprevalence of 68.81% as against negative samples, though significant difference between the negative and positive P. falciparum infected samples and the production of IgG antibody was not observed (p>0.05).This study has demonstrateda boosting immune responses by sub-microscopic parasiteand also suggests a strong relationship between production of IgG antibody and malaria transmission, rather than protective immunity.
2. WHO, World Health Organization. (2015). Statistics profile, Nigeria. http://www.who.int/gho/countries/nga.pdf
3. Marsh, K. &Kinyanjui, S. (2006) Immune effector mechanisma in malaria. Parasite Immunology, 28, 51-60
4. Doolan, D. L., Dobano, C. & Baird, J. K. (2009). Acquired immunity to malaria. Clinical Microbiology Review, 22, 13–36.
5. Richards S. & Beeson, J. G. (2009). The future for blood-stage vaccines against malaria. Immunology and Cell Biology, 87(5), 377–390.
6. Smith, T., Felger, I., Tanner, M. & Beck, H. P. (1999). Premunition in Plasmodium falciparum infection: insights from the epidemiology of multiple infections. Transactions of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 93(1), 59–64.
7. Magesa, S. M., Mdira, K. Y., Babiker, H. A., Alifrangis, M., Färnert, A., Simonsen, P. E., et al. (2002). Diversity of Plasmodium falciparum clones infecting children living in a holoendemic area in north-eastern Tanzania. ActaTropica, 84:83–92.
8. Hamad, A. A., El Hassan, I. M., El Khalifa, A. A.et al. (2000). Chronic Plasmodium falciparum infections in an area of low intensity malaria transmission in the Sudan. Parasitology, 120(Pt 5), 447–456.
9. Mosadomi, W. (2016). 19,000 under-5 children die of malaria annually in Niger State. Vanguard newspaper. April 29, 2016 2:02 am
10. Omalu, I. C. J., Mgbemena, C., Mgbemena, A., Ayanwale, V., Olayemi, I. K., Lateef, A., &Chukwuemeka, V. I. (2012). Prevalence of Congenital Malaria in Minna, North Central Nigeria. Journal of Tropical Medicine, 2012, 274142.
11. Sumbele, I. U. N., Sama, S. D., Kimbi, H. K. &Taiwe, G. S. (2016). Malaria, Moderate to Severe Anaemia, and Malarial Anaemia in Children at Presentation to Hospital in the Mount Cameroon Area: A Cross-Sectional Study. Anemia, 5725634.
12. Diop, F., Richard, V., Diouf, B., Sokhna, C., Diagne, N., Trape, J. F., Faye, M. M., Tall, A., Diop, G. &Balde, A. T. (2014). Dramatic declines in seropositivity as determined with crude extracts of Plasmodiumfalciparumschizonts between 2000 and 2010 in Dielmo and Ndiop, Senegal. Malaria Journal, 13, 83.
13. Nazareth R., Horumpende, P., Sonda, T., Ndaro, A., Mollel, E., Paul, E., Athanase, E. &Chilongola, J. (2017). Naturally Acquired Antibody Responses to a Synthetic Malaria Antigen AS202.11. Journal of Tropical Medicine, 6843701, 5.
14. Sarr, J. B., Remoue, F., Samb, B., Dia, I., Guindo, S., Sow, C., Maiga, S., Tine, S., Thiam, C., Schacht, A. M., Simondon, F., Konate L. &Riveau, G. (2007). Evaluation of antibody response to Plasmodiumfalciparum in children according to exposure of Anophelesgambiaes.l or Anophelesfunestus vectors. Malaria Journal, 6, 117.
15. Shekalaghe, S., Alifrangis, M., Mwanziva, C., Enevold, A., Mwakalinga, S., Mkali, H., Kavishe, R., Manjurano, A., Sauerwein, R., Drakeley, C. &Bousema, T. (2009). Low density parasitaemia, red blood cell polymorphisms and Plasmodium falciparum specific immune responses in a low endemic area in northern Tanzania. BMC infectious diseases,9:69.
16. Giha, H. A. Nasr, A., Iriemenam, N. C., Balogun, H. A., Arnot, D., Theander, T. G., Troye-Blomberg, M., Berzins, K. &ElGhazali, G. (2010). Age-dependent association between IgG2 and IgG3 subclasses to Pf332-C231 antigen and protection from malaria, and induction of protective antibodies by sub-patent malaria infections, in Daraweesh. Vaccine28:1732–1739.
17. Proietti, C., Pettinato, D. D., Kanoi, B. N., Ntege, E., Crisanti, A., Riley, E. M., Egwang, T. G., Drakeley, C. &Bousema, T. (2011). Continuing intense malaria transmission in northern Uganda. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene,84, 830–837.
18. Idris, Z. M. D., Chan, C. W., Kongere, J., Hall, T.,Logedi, J.,Gitaka, J.,Drakeley, C.& Kaneko, A. (2017). Naturally acquired antibody response to Plasmodium falciparum describes heterogeneity in transmission on islands in Lake Victoria. Nature Research Journal, 7, 9123.
19. Fowkes, F. J., Richards, J. S., Simpson, J. A. & Beeson, J. G. (2010). The relationship between anti-merozoite antibodies and incidence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS Med, 7:e1000218.
20. Ismail, H. A., Ribacke, U., Reiling, L., Normark, J., Egwang, T., Kironde, F., Beeson, J. G., Wahlgren, M. &Persson, K. E. M. (2017). Acquired Antibodies to Merozoite Antigens in Children from Uganda with Uncomplicated or Severe Plasmodium falciparum Malaria. Clinical and vaccine immunology, 156.
21. Niang, M., Niass, O., Diagne, N., Sarr, F. D., Faye, M, M., Diop, F., Diouf, B., Faye, J., Badiane, A., Perraut, R., Sokhna, C., Trape, J. F., Tall A. &Toure-Balde, A. (2017). Temporal analysis of IgG antibody responses to Plasmodiumfalciparum antigens in relation to changing malaria epidemiology in a West African setting. Malaria Journal, 16, 283.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.