THE EFFECT OF MUSIC ON COGNITIVE CONTROL AMONG MEDIA MULTITASKERS
Keywords:media multitasking, cognitive control, music, Stroop
The objective was to understand the performance differences of heavy and light media multitaskers. Further, the differences across media multitasking groups when the subjects are performing a cognitive task in the presence of music were studied to understand the role of music in cognitive performance in terms of cognitive control. A sample of 300 girl students from the Government schools of Chandigarh in the age range of 14-18 years (mean age= 15.7 years) was taken for the purpose. The media multitasking questionnaire (Ophir et al., 2009) and the Stroop task (Stroop, 1935) were used. The two media multitasking groups, viz., heavy and light media multitaskers, significantly differed from each other. Media multitasking and cognitive control were found to be linked and the role of music indicated facilitating trend for performance. Studies conclude high levels of media multitasking result in poor cognitive performance in terms of cognitive control and music plays a facilitative role for such media multitasker’s cognitive control.
Cain, M. S., & Mitroff, S. R. (2011). Distractor filtering in media multitaskers. Perception, 40(10), 1183–1192. https://doi.org/10.1068/p7017
Cassidy, G., & MacDonald, R. A. R. (2007). The effect of background music and background noise on the task performance of introverts and extroverts. Psychology of Music, 35(3), 517–537. https://doi.org/10.1177/0305735607076444
Chhabra, H. K., & Sharma, A. (2012). The role of musical rhythm in mindfulness related performance for different levels of anxiety. Personality study and group behaviour, 31, 113–122.
David, P., Xu, L., Srivastava, J., & Kim, J. H. (2013). Media multitasking between two conversational tasks. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(4), 1657–1663. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2013.01.052
Foehr, U. G. (2006). Media multitasking among American youth: Prevalence, predictors and pairings [Kaiser Family Foundation report]. Kaiser Family Foundation.
Furnham, A., & Allass, K. (1999). The influence of musical distraction of varying complexity on the cognitive performance of extroverts and introverts. European Journal of Personality, 13(1), 27–38. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-0984(199901/02)13:1<27::AID-PER318>3.0.CO;2-R
Jeong, S. J., & Fishbein, M. (2007). Predictors of multitasking with media: Media factors and audience factors. Media Psychology, 10(3), 364–384. https://doi.org/10.1080/15213260701532948
Kahneman, D. (1973). Attention and effort. Prentice Hall.
Kang, E., & Lakshmanan, A. (2017). Role of executive attention in consumer learning with background music. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 27(1), 35–48. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcps.2016.03.003
Ma, J., Liu, C., Zhong, X., Wang, L., & Chen, X. (2014). Emotional body-word conflict evokes enhanced N450 and slow potential. PLOS ONE, 9(5), e95198. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0095198
Ophir, E., Nass, C., & Wagner, A. D. (2009). Cognitive control in media multitaskers. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106(37), 15583–15587. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0903620106
Pilotta, J. J., & Schultz, D. (2005). Simultaneous media experience and synesthesia. Journal of Advertising Research, 45(1), 19–26. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021849905050087
Rideout, V. J., Foehr, U. G., & Roberts, D. F. (2010). Generation M2: Media in the lives of 8–18-year olds. Retrieved from Kaiser Family Foundation website. http://www.kff.org/entmedia/mh012010pkg.cfm
Sanbonmatsu, D. M., Strayer, D. L., Medeiros-Ward, N., & Watson, J. M. (2013). Who multitasks and why? Multitasking ability, perceived multitasking ability, impulsivity, and sensation seeking. PLOS ONE, 8(1), e54402. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054402
Schellenberg, E. G. (2015). Music and non-musical abilities. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1–36. https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780198744443.003.0008
Shih, Y. N., Huang, R. H., & Chiang, H. S. (2009). Correlation between work concentration level and background music: A pilot study. Work, 33(3), 329–333. https://doi.org/10.3233/WOR-2009-0880
Shih, Y. N., Huang, R. H., & Chiang, H. Y. (2012). Background music: Effects on attention performance. Work, 42(4), 573–578. https://doi.org/10.3233/WOR-2012-1410
Stroop, J. R. (1935). Studies of interference in serial verbal reactions. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 18(6), 643–662. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0054651
Thompson, W. F., Schellenberg, E. G., & Husain, G. (2001). Arousal, mood, and the Mozart effect. Psychological Science, 12(3), 248–251. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9280.00345
Vega, V. (2009). Report from a research seminar. Seminar on the impacts of media multitasking on children’s learning and development. Stanford University.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Heena Parveen
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.