Development of English in Marathi Speaking Children Attending English Medium Schools (Senior Kindergarten and Grade I)


  • Merin Jose Kottapurathu School of Audiology & Speech Language Pathology, Bharati Vidyapeeth (Deemed to be University) Homeopathy Hospital building 4th-floor Katraj, Dhankawadi, Pune, Maharashtra, India
  • Aarti Waknis School of Audiology & Speech Language Pathology, Bharati Vidyapeeth (Deemed to be University) Homeopathy Hospital building 4th-floor Katraj, Dhankawadi, Pune, Maharashtra, India



English proficiency, home environment, literacy


An increasing number of Marathi-speaking children attend English medium schools in Maharashtra, India. The developmental trend of English in these children is not studied according to the researcher’s best knowledge. Studying this development is essential to understand the development of children with developmental disabilities. Hence, the study aimed to understand the development of English in Marathi-speaking children attending English medium schools in senior kindergarten and Grade I (5 to 7 years of age). Forty Marathi-speaking children attending English medium schools (Senior Kindergarten and Grade I) were included. ‘Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals Preschool 2nd Edition (CELF)’ was used to assess children's language skills, and ‘Development of Emergent Literacy- Questionnaire’ was administered to study the relation between home literacy environment and language skills in English. A gender difference was present for Senior Kindergarten children but not for the children studying in Grade I. More than 65% of children had scores below the age equivalent scores across the subtests. A moderate positive correlation was found between all the subtests of CELF and the score on the emergent literacy questionnaire. In conclusion, there is an effect of gender on English language skills in kindergarten which is not present in Grade I. The competency in English in Marathi-speaking children appears to be low and moderately related to literacy exposure at home.


Download data is not yet available.


Barbu, S., Nardy, A., Chevrot, J. P., Guellaï, B., Glas, L., Juhel, J., & Lemasson, A. (2015). Sex differences in language across early childhood: Family socioeconomic status does not impact boys and girls equally. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 1874.

Bialystok, E., Majumder, S., & Martin, M. M. (2003). Developing phonological awareness: Is there a bilingual advantage? Applied Psycholinguistics, 24(1), 27–44.

Bornstein, M. H., Hahn, C. S., & Haynes, O. M. (2004). Specific and general language performance across early childhood: Stability and gender considerations. First Language, 24(3), 267–304.

Brandis, W., & Henderson, D. (1970). Social class, language and communication, 1. Taylor & Francis.

Fitzgerald, J., Spiegel, D. L., & Cunningham, J. W. (1991). The relationship between parental literacy level and perceptions of emergent literacy. Journal of Reading Behavior, 23(2), 191–213.

Garai, J. E., & Scheinfeld, A. (1968). Sex differences in mental and behavioral traits. Genetic Psychology Monographs, 77(2), 169–299.

Garvey, C., & Hogan, R. (1973). Social speech and social interaction: Egocentrism revisited. Child Development, 44(3), 562–568.

Halverson, Jr., C. F., & Waldrop, M. F. (1970). Maternal behavior toward own and other preschool children: The problem of “Ownness”. Child Development, 41(3), 839–845.

Hoff, E., Laursen, B., & Tardif, T. (2002). Socio economic status and parenting. In M. H. Bornstein (Ed.), Handbook of parenting: Biology and ecology of parenting (pp. 231–252). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.

Hyde, J. S., & Linn, M. C. (1988). Gender differences in verbal ability: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 104(1), 53–69.

Jackson, C. W., Schatschneider, C., & Leacox, L. (2014). Longitudinal analysis of receptive vocabulary growth in young Spanish English–speaking children from migrant families. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 45(1), 40–51.

Jordan, G. E., Snow, C. E., Porche, M. V., & Jordan, G. E. (2014). Project EASE: The effect of a family literacy project on students’ early literacy skills kindergarten, 35(4), 524–546.

Joshi, N. A., & Vanaja, C. S. (2016). Checklist to screen children with reading difficulty (CSRD) for classroom teachers. Language in India, 16, 185–201.

Karanth, P. (2007). Communication DEALL developmental checklists. Com DEALL Trust.

Kastler, L. A., Roser, N. L., & Hoffman, J. V. (1987). Understanding of the forms and functions of written language: Insights from children and parents. Research in literacy: Merging perspectives, 85–92.

Khurana, S., & Rao, P. (2011). Emergent literacy experiences in the classroom – A sample survey in Mysore city. Language in India, 11(3), 428–463.

Krashen, S. D. (1981). Second language acquisition and second language learning. Oxford University Press.

Lonigan, C. J., Burgess, S. R., Anthony, J. L., & Barker, T. A. (1998). Development of phonological sensitivity in 2- to 5-year-old children. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90(2), 294–311.

Maccoby, E. E., & Jacklin, C. N. (1974). Myth, reality and shades of gray: What we know and don’t know about sex differences. Psychology Today, 8(7), 109–112.

Menyuk, P. (1963). Syntactic structures in the language of children. Child Development, 34, 407–422.

Morrow, L. M. (1988). Young children’s responses to one-to-one story readings in school settings. Reading Research Quarterly, 23(1), 89–107.

O’Donnell, R. C., Griffin, W. J., & Norris, R. C. (1967). Grammatical structures in the speech of children: A transformational analysis. Journal of Experimental Education, 36(2), 70–77.

Roberts, T. A. (2008). Home storybook reading in primary or second language with preschool children: Evidence of equal effectiveness for second‐language vocabulary acquisition. Reading Research Quarterly, 43(2), 103–130.

Shah. (2010). Phonological awareness in typically developing 4- to 6-year-old children [Unpublished master’s dissertation]. Maharashtra University of Health Sciences.

Shatz, M., & Gelman, R. (1973). The development of communication skills: Modifications in the speech of young children as a function of listener. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 38(5), 1–38.

Smith, P. K., & Connolly, K. (1972). Patterns of play and social interaction in preschool children. Ethological Studies of Child Behaviour, 65–95.

Uccelli, P., & Páez, M. M. (2007). Narrative and vocabulary development of bilingual children from kindergarten to first grade: Developmental changes and associations among English and Spanish skills. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 38(3), 225–236.

Waknis, A. P., Chintala, T. V., & Vanaja, C. S. (2017). Development of Phonological awareness in English in Marathi speaking children (5 to 7 years). International Journal of English and Education, 6(2), 186–206.

Wallschlaeger, M., & Hendricks, B. (1997). Gender differences in phonetic processing. Current Psychology, 16(2), 155–166.

Wells, G. (1986). Variation in child language. Language acquisition: Studies in first language development, 2, 109–139.

Westby, C., Wallach, G., & Butler, K. (1984). Development of narrative language abilities. Language learning disabilities in school-age children, 103–127.

Whitehouse, A. J., Mattes, E., Maybery, M. T., Sawyer, M. G., Jacoby, P., Keelan, J. A., & Hickey, M. (2012). Sex‐specific associations between umbilical cord blood testosterone levels and language delay in early childhood. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 53(7), 726–734.

Winitz, H. (1959). Language skills of male and female kindergarten children. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 2, 377–386.



How to Cite

Kottapurathu, M. J., & Waknis, A. (2023). Development of English in Marathi Speaking Children Attending English Medium Schools (Senior Kindergarten and Grade I). Innovare Journal of Education, 11(3).



Research Article(s)