Int J Pharm Pharm Sci, Vol 12, Issue 6, 1-7Review Article



*1,3Department of Pharmacology, CT Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jalandhar, 2Department of Pharmaceutics, CT Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jalandhar

Received: 02 Mar 2020, Revised and Accepted: 22 Apr 2020


Cassia fistula Linn. is also called a “golden shower”. It is aboriginal to India, Sri Lanka and diffused in various countries, including Mexico, China, Mauritius, East Africa, South Africa, and West Indies. Plant and its parts, such as bark, fruit, leaves, and seeds, are used traditionally to cure diseases. Traditionally the plant possesses hepatoprotective, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, leukotriene inhibition, antitussive activity, antioxidant, wound healing, hypo-lipidemia, anticancer, antidiabetic, central nervous system activity, antiulcer, antibacterial, antifertility, larvicidal and ovicidal, antifeedant, laxative, anti-epileptic, antimicrobial, urease inhibition, antifungal, anti-tobacco mosaic virus activities. The review contains botanical information, constituents and pharmacological leverages of the plant. The review draws attention towards the traditional, phytochemical and pharmacological knowledge accessible on Cassia fistula Linn, which would be beneficial for research scholars to develop novel chemical entities. This review article is written after studying most of the journal’s articles, which were published between 1998 to 2019.

Keywords: Hepatoprotective, Wound healing, Antioxidant, Laxative, Anti-inflammatory


Since long the extracts of plants are used to relieve the symptoms of many diseases [1]. Most of the herbal drugs are not critically examined because herbs are assumed that they are safe and natural but many herbs have serious adverse effects, which might create life-threatening conditions [2]. The main objective of this review is to highlight the botanical reports, pharmacological uses, and toxicity studies. Cassia fistula is a deciduous-mixed monsoon forest tree species having an approximate height of 24 m and 1.8 m girth that belongs to the Fabaceae family (this family includes a large number of about 670 genera and nearly 20,000 plant species). It is famed as Amulthus, “Golden Shower” and also popularized as “Indiana Laburnum”. This plant species confers huge ethnomedicinal importance and has extensively been used in Ayurveda to cure many diseases. It is native to India, Sri Lanka and diffused in various countries, including Mexico, China, Mauritius, East Africa, South Africa, and West Indies [3, 4]. It is a Thailand national tree. It grows in the shade and develops in low supplement and shallow soil. Seeds and Vegetative means are the two methods for germination [5]. A young tree's bark color is greenish-grey and it becomes dark brown colored after maturing. It is a tree that lasts for a short time. Leaves consist of leaflets that pair 2-5 cm long and contain about 3-8 reverse frill duets. Flowers of golden shower trees are golden yellow in color and showers flower bunches of length 40 cm [6-8]. Cassia fistula has been used in folk medicine and reported for various pharmacological properties. Every part of this plant is recognized for its medicinal properties.

Botanical reports of Cassia fistula Linn.

Kingdom: Plantae, Subkingdom: Tracheobinota, Superdivision: Spermatophyta, Division: Magnoliophyta, Class: Magnoliopsida, Subclass: Rosidae, Order: Fabales, Family: Fabaceae, Genus: Cassia, Species: fistula [9].

Vernacular names of Cassia fistula Linn.

Cassia fistula is also recognized by some other names in different languages and regions.

Table 1: Vernacular names of Cassia fistula Linn

  • Vernacular names

  • Guajarati: Garmala [10]

  • Bengali: Bundaralati, Soondali, Sonalu [10]

  • Hindi: Amultus, Sonhali [10]

  • Punjabi: Kaniyaar, Girdnalee, Amaltaas [10]

  • English: Golden Shower [10]

  • Tamil: Shrakkonnai, Irjviruttam [10]

  • Marathi: Bahava [10]

  • Kannad: Kakkemara [10]

  • Arab: Khayarsambhar [10]

  • Telegu: Raelachettu, Aragvadhamu [10]

  • Oriya: Sunaari [10]

  • Urdu: Amaltaas [10]

  • Sanskrit: Nripadruma [10]

  • French: Douche d’or [11]

  • Malaysia: Kayu raja [11]

  • Sri Lanka: Aehaela-gaha [11]

  • Germany: Fistul-kassie [11]

  • Thailand: Chaiyaphruek [11]

Table 2: Chemical constituents of various parts Cassia fistula plant

Plant parts Constituents
Bark The stem bark contains lupeol, ß-sitosterol, and hexacosanol [12].
Leaves Leaves contain heptacosanyl-5-hydroxypentadec-2-enoate, octacosan-5, and 8-diol [13]. Rhein, chrysophanol, and physcion [14].
Pod The pod contains rhein glycoside and ferulic acid, ceryl alcohol, anthraquinone, and tannin [15, 16].
Flowers Flowers contain kaempferol, leucopelargonidin tetramer, rhein, fistulin, and triterpene [17].

Seeds contain glycerides with linoleic, oleic, stearic, and palmitic acids as chief fatty acids and traces of caprylic and myristic acids [18].

others: 5-(2-hydroxy phenoxy methyl)furfural, (2's)-7-hydroxy-5-hydroxymethyl-2-(2'-hydroxypropyl) chromone, benzyl 2-hydroxy-3, 6-dimethoxybenzoate, and benzyl 2 β-o-d-glucopyranosyl-3, 6-dimethoxybenzoate together with other compounds, (2's)-7-hydroxy-2-(2'-hydroxypropyl)-5-methylchromone, and two oxyanthraquinones, chrysophanol, and chrysophaneinhanein [19].

Galactomannan [20].

Pharmacological activities of Cassia fistula linn

The plant Cassia fistula has a broad variety of pharmacological activities. A lot of research has been done on this plant for many years. This plant is easily available in many regions. Cassia fistula and its derivatives are considered as an important source of active ingredients that can be used in drug development.

Table 3: List of pharmacological activities of Cassia fistula linn.

Activity Used portion Used solvent Inducing agent Extract dose Animal model/in vitro Outcome Reference
Hepatoprotective Leaves n-heptane Paracetamol 400 mg/kg Wistar albino rats 180-200 g Dropping the serum levels of transaminases, bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase. [21]
Roots Alcoholic CCl4 100, and 200 mg/kg Wistar albino rats 170-200 g Holds significant dose-dependent protective action. [22]
Leaf Ethanolic CCl4 500 mg/kg Rats

Ethanolic leaf extract reverses lipid peroxidation.

It also reverses the activities of catalase and glutathione reductase in the liver tissue to normal.

Leaves and bark Aqueous CCl4 Albino Wistar rats 180-200 g. Reduced plasma enzyme and bilirubin concentration in rats. [24]



Paracetamol 200, and 400 mg/kg Rats Reversed back the altered level of biochemical markers. [25]
Antipyretic Pod/fruit Methanolic Yeast

250, and 500


Wistar rats 200-220 g and

Swiss albino mice 18-25 g

Improved hypothermal activity. [26]
Pod Yeast 200, and 400 mg/kg Rats It helps in lowering temperature up to 4 h. [11]
Antipyretic and anti-inflammatory Leaf Ethanolic

TAB vaccine


250, 500 mg/kg

50, 100, 250, 500, and 750


Wistar albino rat

180-200 g

It helps in reducing body temperature.

Helps in reducing hind paw edema, and cotton pellet granuloma.

Leukotriene inhibition Fruits Methanolic Inhibition of the 5-lipoxygenase enzyme. [28]
Antitussive Leaf Methanolic Sulphur dioxide gas 400, 600 mg/kg White albino mice 30-40 g Inhibited coughing by 44.44%, and 51.85%. [29]


Stem bark, pulp, and flowers

90% Ethanolic

90% Methanolic

Stem bark had more antioxidant activity.




Ethanolic and


Hydrogen peroxide Different concentrations used between 50 to 5000 In vitro

Ethanolic extract showed 90% protection of erythrocytes.

An aqueous extract showed 75% of antioxidant and protective activity.

Bark, stem, leaf, and root of different age groups Methanolic In vitro Bark extracts from three different age classes showed high antioxidant activity than other parts of the plant. [32]





Aqueous and


CCl4 and FeSO4

In vitro

Wistar albino rats

 Both extracts show significant antioxidant activity in DPPH, Nitric oxide and Hydroxyl radical

The significant anti-inflammatory effect in both acute and chronic models.

Antioxidant Bark

Ethyl acetate



In vitro Antioxidant activity of Ethyl acetate extract, methanol extract, and n-hexane extract is 65.98%, 58.19%, and 32.66%, respectively. [34]


Ethyl acetate

Aqueous fractions

In vitro

Antioxidant potency was found to be in decreasing order of ethyl acetate

>n-hexane>aqueous fractions, and had good co-relationship with Their

polyphenolic and flavonoid material.

Flowers Aqueous Alloxan 10 ml/kg

Female Wistar rats

180-200 g

In diabetic rats, decreased production of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione were brought back to near normal range. [36]
Fruit pulp Hydroalcoholic In vitro Inhibiting DPPH and hydroxyl radical, total phenol content. [37]


Rhein isolated

Carrageenan-induced hind paw edema

Croton oil-induced ear edema

Cotton pellet-induced granuloma

Acetic acid-induced vascular permeability models

Rhein 10, 20, 40 mg/kg

20, 40 mg/kg

10, 20 and 40 mg/kg

Wistar albino rats

200-220 g and mice 24-28 g

Inhibited paw edema.

Inhibited ear edema in mice in dose-dependent manners.

17.24% and 36.12%

reduced granuloma formation

Rhein significantly inhibited acetic acid-induced vascular permeability.



Dried fruits of

Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad and

Wendl, and dried pulp of Cassia fistula 

Water Carragenan

100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 mg/kg

Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad and

Wendl: Cassia fistula 



Wistar Albino rats 150-300 g

Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad and Wendl showed more activity than the dried fruits of Cassia fistula.

Both extracts had maximum activity at 500 mg/kg dose.

The combination was found to have synergistic effects.

Anti-inflammatory Leaf Methanolic Carrageenin, Histamine, and dextran induced paw edema  200, 400, and 800 mg/kg

Male Wistar albino rats

130-150 g

Suppress the inflammation that carrageenan, histamine, and dextran induced.



Bark Aqueous and alcoholic Air pouch granuloma and cotton pellet granuloma models In sub-acute models Significant anti-inflammatory activity. [41]
Wound Healing Bark Hexane Streptozotocin induced Diabetes 0.15, 0.30, and 0.45 g/kg Wistar albino Rats 150-200 g Antidiabetic effect and ideal for coronary artery disease treatment. [42]
Leaves Alcoholic

 Full-thickness wound


Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213

and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 2785

10% formulated ointment

0.125+/-0.101 micro g/ml

250+/-0.204 micro g/ml

Wistar albino rat 150-200 g

In vitro anti-microbial activity

Significant prohealing activity.

Effective wound closure, better tissue regeneration at the wound site and support for wound-related histopathological parameters.

Leaves Methanolic Excision and Incision 5% and 10% w/w ointment Rats Comparable results with standard medication, nitrofurazone in terms of wound contraction capacity, duration of epithelization, tensile strength and tissue regeneration at wound location. [44]
Hypolipidemic Legume 50% Ethanolic Cholesterol fed rats 100, 250, and 500 mg/kg b. wt./day Rats Specifically prevented the dose-dependent rise of serum total and LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and phospholipid. [45]
Anticancer activity Seeds Methanolic Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg/day Male albino Swiss mice 18-22 g Increased lifespan and reduced tumor volume and a viable number of tumor cells in the EAC tumor hosts. [46]
Flower Aqueous MCF-7 and Vero cell lines

1000 mg/ml

7.19 μg/ml

In vitro

AgNPs can be used in the development of novel anticancer drugs.

90.5%, and 89.7% cell death was noticed in MCF-7 and Vero cell lines, respectively.

The inhibitory concentration (IC50) against MCF-7 was observed.


Rhein isolated from flower

Ethyl acetate

Colon cancer cell lines.

cell line such as COLO320DM

Normal cell line VERO

200 μg/ml In vitro Rhein showed 40.59%, 58.26%, 65.40%, 77.92%, and 80.25% cytotoxicity at 200 μg/ml concentration for 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h incubation time.




Ethanolic, methanolic, diethyl ether, and chloroform extract CDRUG server to check the anticancer activity The results of our study clearly show that HOP-22(29)-EN-3. BETA.-OL may serve as a promising inhibitor for cancer treatment and guide future research. [49]


Hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol Streptozotocin 10, 30 mg/kg Male Wistar albino rats 160-180 g The decrease in blood glucose, cholesterol, and triglyceride levels on aloe-emodin glycoside therapy. [50]


Petroleum ether, chloroform, acetone, ethanol, aqueous, and crude aqueous extracts and two fractions of ethanol extract


200, 400 mg/kg

Wistar rats of either sex

150-180 g

Appreciable results in a drop in the plasma glucose level and other diabetes complications [51]


Aqueous extract


60 mg/kg Male albino Wistar rats 150-200 g Gold nano-particles with Cassia fistula have promising anti-diabetic properties.



Stem barks

of Tamarind

us indica 


Cassia fistula 

Alcoholic extracts


250, 500 mg/kg

In vitro Different


Wistar rats

150-200 g

The combination has a lowering level of blood glucose along with antioxidant and defensive levels on renal complications.

Both extracts showed promising free radical DPPH scavenging activity in a concentration-dependent manner up to 250 μg/ml. Cassia fistula showed more scavenger behavior than Tamarindus indica. 


Stem bark



Catechin20 mg/kg  Male albino wistar rats Results confirm that catechin has a hypoglycemic effect. We may infer that catechin can become a potential oral hypoglycemic medication. [54]


Methanolic   in vitro activity of the isolated biochanin A The methanolic extract showed significant antileishmanial activity. [55]
Central nervous system



Morphine and pethidine

1, 1.66, and 2.5 g/kg Swiss albino mice of either sex 20-25 g Methanolic extract showed a significant CNS depressant action in a dose-dependent manner.





Ethanolic ex­tract

Pylorus ligation-induced gastric ulcer

250, 500, and 750 mg/kg Rats

Decreased gastric acid secretion, protection of the mucosal barrier, and inhibition of free radical generation.

Ethanolic leaf extract (750 mg/kg) produced maximum antiulcer activity comparable to ranitidine treatment.



Petroleum ether   100, 200, and 500 mg/kg Fertile female albino rats A decline in the fertility index, dose-dependent numbers of uterine implants and live fetuses (100 mg/kg) and poor estrogenic activity when administered alone [58]



100 mg/kg

200 mg/kg

500 mg/kg

Female rats

Prevents pregnancy 57.14%

71.43% pregnancy inhibition

100% pregnancy inhibition respectively

Larvicidal and ovicidal Leaf Methanolic LC50 values of 17.97 and 20.57 mg/l, The filarial and malarial vector mosquitoes, Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles stephensi The extract was more lethal to the larvae of Anopheles stephensi than Culex quinquefasciatus with LC50 values of 17.97 and 20.57 mg/l, respectively





  0.5, 1.0, and 2.0%, topically applied Eggs Inhibited hatching of the eggs and increased extract concentration resulted in an improved abrogation of 3-day-old eggs. [61]

Antifeedant and larvicidal

Rhein isolated from flower

Ethyl acetate   1000 ppm concentration Lepidopter-on pests Spodoptera litura and Helicoverpa armigera

Considerable antifeedant activity against Helicoverpa armigera (76.13%) was observed. Rhein exhibited larvicidal activity against Helicoverpa armigera (67.5%), Spodoptera litura (36.25%) respectively.

The survived larvae were malformed adults.


Leaves of Cassia fistula


Ripened fruits of Piper nigrum


10, 30, 50, 70



Anopheles stephensi

In vitro

Exhibited remarkable Adulticidal and Larvicidal potentials.

Cassia fistula pod infusion could be safely utilized as laxative drugs and as a substitute for the official Senna.

Laxative activity

Rhein content in pod pulp

Decoction extract using ethyl acetate: methanol: water 100:17:13as the solvent system   2.4, 3.6 g of decoction extract Rats It shows the laxative property. [64]


Methanolic Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) 100, 200 mg/kg Mice Methanolic extract of seeds of Cassia fistula showed anticonvulsant activity. [65]
Removal of toxic metal ions


  182.2 mg/g Ni(II) ion adsorption system undergoes chemisorption, exothermic, feasible and spontaneous. The excellent properties of the Cassia fistula seeds can be alternate for commercial activated carbon. [66]
Urease inhibition


Aqueous, methanol, hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate   In vitro Ex. cept for chloroform extract, all four samples exhibited more than 50% urease inhibitory activity. [67]

Leaves, barks, and seeds

Ethanol, chloroform,petroleum ether and aqueous   In vitro Showed excellent anticandidal activity. Ethanol extract of Cassia fistula seed exhibited the most inhibitory activity. Gallic acid is a potent natural antifungal agent. [68]

Leaves Cassia alata, Cassia. fistula and Cassia tora

Methanolic extract  

In vitro

Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum gypseum, and Penicillium marneffei.

Cassia fistula was the most potent inhibitor of Penicillium marneffei.

The hyphal growth of Trichophyton rubrum, Microsporum gypseum, and Penicillium marneffei was inhibited by all the extracts in a concentration-dependent manner.



Anti-tobacco mosaic virus


70% aqueous Methanolic   In vitro Results showed that compounds 1 and 2 showed high Anti-tobacco mosaic virus activity with an inhibition rate of 28.5% and 31.3%. Compounds 4-7 showed modest anti-Anti-tobacco mosaic virus activity with an inhibition rate of 18.5%, 22.7%, 16.4%, and 15.3%, respectively. [70]

AgNPs synthesized from Cassia fistula fruit


Dose-dependent (0, 10, 20, 40, and 80 µg/ml


fruit extract showed a heightened bactericidal activity against

Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia. 100% against former and 91% in the case of latter Gram-negative bacteria. AgNPs did not exhibit cytotoxic activity in mammalian cells.


Fistulin isolated from Leaves

A protease inhibitor named “fistulin”

Crude extracts were obtained by homogenizing the leaves In vitro The Plant protease inhibitor was found to be very active against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, and Klebsiella pneumonia.  [72]
Flowers Methanolic, and ethanolic 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, and 160 mg/ml In vitro

The most susceptible microorganisms to extracts were Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, respectively.

Also, Bacillus cereus, and Staphylococcus aureus showed the least sensitivity to extracts respectively.



Antibacterial and antifungal Leaf Hydroalcoholic 5, 25, 50, 100, 250 μg/ml In vitro Results demonstrated strong inhibition of bacterial growth against the studied species. This is because of the presence of various secondary metabolites. [74]
Fruit pulp Hydroalcoholic 5, 25, 50, 100, 250 μg/ml In vitro Crude extracts showed moderate and strong activity against most of the bacteria tested. [75]
Flowers Hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol,and water (5, 2.5, and 1.25 mg per disc) with three replicates In vitro

Extracts of Cassia fistula flowers showed inhibition against “Gram-positive” bacteria.

And “Gram-negative” bacteria were not inhibited.

Active flavone glycoside from the seeds Petroleum ether In vitro Results showed that the antibacterial activity of compound 1 was found to be fairly good against Gram+ve bacteria, and Gram-ve bacteria. The antifungal activity of compound 1>Aspergillus niger and Fusarium oxysporum. [77]
Antimicrobial activity Seeds Methanolic 1.563-50.00 mg/ml In vitro Results showed Antimicrobial activity and it was non-toxic to human. [78]

Table 4: Toxicity status of cassia fistula

Solvent for extraction Plant part Results Reference
Aqueous Pods

Possessed very low levels of toxicity, having the LD50 of 6600 mg/kg and no

Pathological effects on the organs.

Alcoholic Stem bark No signs of toxicity up to a dose level of 2000 mg/p. o. [80]
Aqueous and methanolic Bark Acute toxicity study with the extracts showed no sign of toxicity up to a dose level of 2000 mg/po. [81]
Methanolic Seeds Seeds extract with high LC50 value signified that this plant is not toxic to human [77]
Ethanolic Fruit In acute studies: Cassia fistula extract up to a dose of 5000 mg/kg did not induce mortality and In sub-acute studies: showed Cassia fistula extract at the doses of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg to rats did not induce mortality. [82]

Toxicity status of cassia fistula linn

Different toxicity studies have been done by researchers and they found that different parts of the plant are non-toxic or very less toxic to humans.


Cassia fistula Linn. has been examined scrupulously for its phytochemical and pharmacological activities. From the above review, it is concluded that Cassia fistula Linn. has been used as an important curative agent for patients. It is a very useful herbal plant and needs to explore more to know the exact mechanism. In both in vivo and in vitro studies, Cassia fistula has various pharmacological properties.


Authors are grateful to the faculty of CT Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jalandhar for continuous encouragement and providing a necessary facility for literature review work.




Shikha Sanoria, Zulfkar Latief Qadrie made the idea and participated in its design and draft of the manuscript. Surya Prakash Gautam, Amit Barwal helped in the final editing of the manuscript of review article. All authors read and approved the final draft of the review article.


The author declares no conflict of interest


  1. Dong Y, Chen H, Gao J, Liu Y, Li J, Wang J, et al. Bioactive ingredients in chinese herbal medicines that target non-coding RNAs: promising new choices for disease treatment. Front Pharmacol 2019;10:515.

  2. Tashjian A, Maria V, Jahangir A. Use of herbal products and potential interactions in patients with cardiovascular diseases. J Am Coll Cardiol 2010;55:515-25.

  3. Ajay Kumar K, Satish S, Ibrahim Sayeed, Karunakara Hedge. Therapeutic uses of cassia fistula: a review. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2017;3:38-43.

  4. Moshahid M, Rizvi A, Gamel IM, Hassadi EI, Younis BS. Review of bioefficacies of Cassia fistula. Afr J Pharm Pharmacol 2009;3:287-92.

  5. Siddiqua A, Zahra M, Begum K, Jamil M. The traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological properties of Cassia fistula. J Pharm Pharmacol Res 2018;2:15-23.

  6. Rajagopal PL, Premaletha K, Kiron SS, Sreejith KR. Phytochemical and pharmacological review on Cassia fistula Linn.–“the golden shower. Int J Pharm Chem Biol Sci 2013;3:672-9.

  7. Danish M, Singh P, Mishra G, Srivastava S, Jha KK, Khosa RL. Cassia fistula linn. (Amulthus)-an important medicinal plant: a review of its traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological properties. J Nat Prod Plant Resour 2011;1:101-18.

  8. Neelam C, Ranjan B, Komal S, Nootan C. Review on Cassia fistula. Int J Res Ayurveda Pharm 2011;2:426–30.

  9. Arshad H Rahmani. Cassia fistula linn: potential candidate in health management. Pharmacogn Res 2015;7:217-24.

  10. Ali MA. Cassia fistula linn: a review of phytochemical and pharmacological studies. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2014;5:2125-30.

  11. Doblin Sandai, Bassel Al-Hindi, Khirun Musa, Rosline Sandai. Botanical characteristics, nutritional properties, therapeutic potential and safety profile of cassia fistula linn.: a review update. EC Pharmacol Toxicol 2019;7:94-106. 

  12. Sen AB, Shukia YN. Chemical examination of Cassia fistula. J Indian Chem Soc 1968;45:744. 

  13. Singh RS, Singh H, Pandey HS, Pandey RP, Singh S. Two new aliphatic compounds from Cassia fistula L. Indian J Chem 2005;44:2372-4.

  14. Mahesh VK, Sharma R, Singh RS. Anthraquinones and kaempferol from Cassia fistula species. J Nat Prod 1984;47:733–51.

  15. Chopra RN, Nayar SL, Chpora IC. Glossary of Indian medicinal plants, national institute of science communication and information resources; 2006. p. 54.

  16. Ching Kuo Lee, Ping Hung Lee, Yueh Hsiung Kuo. The chemical constituents from the aril Cassia fistula Linn. J Chin Chem Soc 2001;48:1053-8.

  17. Kumar A, Pande CS, Kaul RK. Chemical examination of cassia fistula flowers. Indian J Chem 1966;4:460. 

  18. Abu Sayeed M, Abbas AM, Mohal Khan GR, Rahman MS. Studies on the characterization and glyceride composition of Cassia fistula seed oil. Bangladesh J Sci Ind Res 1999;34:144-8.

  19. Kuo YH, Lee PH, Wein YS. Four new compounds from the seeds of Cassia fistula. J Nat Prod 2002;65:1165–7. 

  20. Lal J, Gupta PC. Partial hydrolysis and the structure of the galactomannan from Cassia fistula seeds. Planta Med 1976;30:378-83. 

  21. Bhakta T, Mukherjee PK, Banerjee S, Mandal SC, Maity TK, Pal M, et al. J Ethnopharmacol 1999;66:277-82.

  22. Dawada S, Zade V, Dabhadkar D, Pare S. Hepatoprotective activity of Cassia fistula root against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic injury in rats (wistar). Int J Pharm Sci Res 2012;3:368-78.

  23. Pradeep K, Mohan CV, Anand KG, Karthikeyan S. Effect of pretreatment of Cassia fistula linn. leaf extract against subacute CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Indian J Exp Biol 2005;43:526-30.

  24. Wasu SJ, Muley BP. Hepatoprotective effect of Cassia fistula linn. Ethnobotanical Leaflets 2009;13:910-6. 

  25. Chaudhari NB, Chittam KP, Patil VR. Hepatoprotective activity of Cassia fistula seeds against paracetamol-induced hepatic injury in rats. Arch Pharm Sci Res 2009;1:218-21.

  26. Singh MP, Singh A, Alam G, Patel R, Datt N. Antipyretic activity of Cassia fistula linn. pods. J Pharm Res 2012;5:2593-4.

  27. Gobianand K, Vivekababdan P, Pradeep K, Mohan CV, karthikeyan S. Anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activities of Indian medicinal plant Cassia fistula linn. (Golden shower) in wistar albino rats. Int J Pharmacol 2010;6:719-25.

  28. KCS Kumar, K Muller. Plant‐derived products as antimutagen. Phytother Res 1998;12:526-8.

  29. T Bhakta, PK Mukherjee, K Saha, M Pal, BP Saha. Studies on the antitussive activity of Cassia fistula (Leguminosae) leaf extract. Pharm Biol 1998;36:140-3.

  30. Siddhuraju P, Mohan PS, Becker K. Studies on the antioxidant activity of Indian laburnum (Cassia fistula L.): a preliminary assessment of crude extracts from stem bark, leaves, flowers, and fruit pulp. J Agric Food Chem 2002;79:61-7.

  31. Abid R, Mahmood R, Rajesh KP, Kumara Swamy BE. Potential in vitro antioxidant and protective effect of Cassia fistula Linn. fruit extracts against induced oxidative damage in human erythrocytes. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6:497-505. 

  32. Lai TK, Liew KC. Total phenolics. Total tannins and antioxidant activity of Cassia fistula L. extracts of bark, stem, leaf, and root under different age classes. Asian J Pharm Res Health Care 2013;5:52-7. 

  33. Ilavarasana R, Mallikab M, Venkataraman S. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of Cassia fistula Linn. bark extracts. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med 2005;2:70-85.

  34. Noorhajati H, Tanjung M, Aminah NS, Ami Suwandi JS. Antioxidant activities of extracts of trengguli stem bark (Cassia fistula L.). Int J Basic Appl Sci 2012;12:85-9. 

  35. Kalaiyarasi C, Karthika K, Lalithkumar P, Ragupathi G, Saravanan S. In vitro antioxidant activity of various solvent fractions of Cassia fistula L. pods. J Pharmacogn Phytochem 2014;3:73-6.

  36. Manonmani G, Bhavapriya V, Kalpana S, Govindasamy S, Apparanantham T. Antioxidant activity of Cassia fistula (Linn.) flowers in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2005;97:39-42.

  37. Bhalodia NR, Nariya PB, Acharya RN, Shukla VJ. In vitro antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic extract from the fruit pulp of Cassia fistula linn. Ayu 2013;34:209-14.

  38. Paulrayer Antonisamy, Paul Agastian, Chang Won Kang, Nam Soo Kim, and Jong-Hoon Kim. Anti-inflammatory activity of rhein isolated from the flowers of Cassia fistula L. and possible underlying mechanisms. Saudi J Biol Sci 2019;26:96-104.

  39. Anwikar S, Bhitre M. Study of the synergistic anti-inflammatory activity of solanum xanthocarpum schrad and wendl and Cassia fistula linn. Int J Ayurveda Res 2010;1:167-71. 

  40. Bhakta T, Mukherjee PK, Saha K, Pal M, Saha BP. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory effects of Cassia fistula (Leguminosae) leaf extracts o rats. J Herbs Spices Med Plants 1999;6:67-72. 

  41. Rajeswari R, Thejomoorthy P, Mathuram LN, Raju KV. Anti-inflammatory activity of Cassia fistula linn. bark extracts in sub-acute models of inflammation in rats. Tamil Nadu J Vet Anim Sci 2006;2:193-9. 

  42. Nirmala J Eliza, M Rajalakshmi, P Edel, P Daisy. Effect of hexane extract of Cassia fistula barks on blood glucose and lipid profile in streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Int J Pharmacol 2008;4:292-6.

  43. Senthil Kumar M, Sripriya R, Vijaya Raghavan H, Sehgal PK. Wound healing potential of Cassia fistula on an infected albino rat model. J Surg Res 2006;131:283-9.

  44. Bhakta T, Mukherjee PK, Mukherjee K, Pal M, Saha BP. Studies on in vivo wound healing activity of Cassia fistula linn. leaves (Leguminosae) in rats. Nat Prod Sci 1998;4:84-7. 

  45. UC Gupta, GC Jain. Study on the hypolipidemic activity of cassia fistula. Legume Rats Asian J Exp Sci 2009;23:241-8.

  46. Gupta M, Mazumder U, Rath N, Mukhopadhyay D. Antitumor activity of methanolic extract of Cassia fistula L. seed against ehrlich ascites carcinoma. J Ethnopharmacol 2000;72:151-6.

  47. Remya RR, Rajasree SRR, Aranganathan L, Suman TY. An investigation on the cytotoxic effect of bioactive AgNPs synthesized using Cassia fistula flower extract on breast cancer cell MCF-7. Biotechnol Rep 2015;8:110–5.

  48. Duraipandiyan V, Baskar AA, Ignacimuthu S, Muthukumar C, Al-Harbi NA. Anticancer activity of rhein isolated from Cassia fistula L. flower. Asian Pac J Trop Dis 2012;2:517-23.

  49. Kanika Verma, Shanthi Veerappapillai, Ramanathan Karuppasamy. Exploration of plant bioactive from cassia fistula leaves for the treatment of ovarian cancer: an integrative approach. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2016;9:182-8.

  50. Anand S, Saravanababu, Lakshmi BS, Muthusamy VS. Aloe-emodin glycosides ameliorate glucose utilization via downstream insulin regulators: an in vivo investigation. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2016;9 Suppl 2:191-8.

  51. Jarald EE, Joshi SB, Jain DC, d Edwin S. Biochemical evaluation of the hypoglycemic effects of extract and fraction of Cassia fistula linn. in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Indian J Pharm Sci 2013;75:427-34.

  52. Daisy P, Saipriya K. Biochemical analysis of Cassia fistula aqueous extract and phytochemically synthesized gold nanoparticles as hypoglycemic treatment for diabetes mellitus. Int J Nanomed 2012;7:1189-202. 

  53. Agnihotri A, Singh V. Effect of Tamarindus indica Linn. and Cassia fistula Linn. stem bark extracts on oxidative stress and diabetic conditions. Acta Pol Pharm 2013;70:1011-9. 

  54. Pitchai D, Manikkam R. Hypoglycemic and insulin-mimetic impact of catechin isolated from Cassia fistula: a substantiate in silico approach through docking analysis. Med Chem Res 2012;21:2238–50. 

  55. Sartorelli P, Andrade SP, Melhem MS, Prado FO, Tempone AG. Isolation of antileishmanial sterol from the fruits of Cassia fistula using bio guided fractionation. Phytother Res 2007;21:644-7. 

  56. Mazumder UK, Guptha M, Rath N. CNS activities of Cassia fistula in mice. J Phytother Res 1998;12:512-25.

  57. Karthikeyan S, Gobianand K. Antiulcer activity of ethanol leaf extract of Cassia fistula. Pharm Biol 2010;48:869-77.

  58. Rajesh Yadav, GC Jain. Antifertility effect and hormonal profile of petroleum ether extract of seeds of Cassia fistula in female rats. Int J PharmTech Res 2009;1:438-44.

  59. Yadav R, Jain GC. Antifertility effect of aqueous extract of seeds of Cassia fistula in female rats. Adv Contracept 1999;15:293301. 

  60. M Govindarajan, A Jebanesan, T Pushpanathan. Larvicidal and ovicidal activity of Cassia fistula linn. leaf extract against filarial and malarial vector mosquitoes. Parasitol Res 2008;102:289-92.

  61. Ashok Verma, GK Yadav. An international journal published biannually. J Exp Zool India 2003;6:251-6.

  62. Duraipandiyan V, Ignacimuthu S, Gabriel Paulraj M. Antifeedant and larvicidal activities of Rhein isolated from the flowers of Cassia fistula L. Saudi J Biol Sci 2011;18:129-33.

  63. Mehmood S, Lateef M, Omer MO, Anjum AA, Rashid MI, Shehzad W. Adulticidal and larvicidal activity of Cassia fistula and Piper nigrum against malaria vector. Sci Int (Lahore) 2014;26:331-4. 

  64. Sakulpanich A, Chewchinda S, Sithisarn P, Gritsanapan W. Standardization and toxicity evaluation of Cassia fistula pod pulp extract for an alternative source of the herbal laxative drug. Phcog J 2012;4:6-12. 

  65. Librowski T, Czarnecki R, Mendyk A, Jastrzeska M. Influnce of new monoterpene homologus of GABA on the central nervous system activity in mice. Pol J Pharmacol 2008;52:317-21.

  66. Hemavathy RRV, Kumar PS, Suganya S, Swetha V, Varjani SJ. Modeling on the removal of toxic metal ions from an aquatic system by different surface modified Cassia fistula seeds. Bioresour Technol 2019;281:1-9.

  67. Sikri N, Dhanda S, Dalal S. Kinetics of urease inhibition by different fractions of Cassia fistula. S Afr J Bot 2019;120:274-9.

  68. Sony P, Kalyani M, Jeyakumari D, Kannan I, Sukumar RG. In vitro antifungal activity of Cassia fistula extracts against fluconazole-resistant strains of Candida species from HIV patients. J Mycol Med 2018;28:193-200.

  69. Phongpaichit S, Pujenjob N, Rukachaisirikul V, Ongsakul M. Antifungal activity from leaf extracts of Cassia alata, Cassia fistula, and Cassia tora. Songklanakarin J Sci Technol 2004;26:741-8.

  70. Zhao W, Zeng X, Zhang T, Wang L, Yang G, Chen YK, et al. Flavonoids from the bark and stems of Cassia fistula and their anti-tobacco mosaic virus activities. Phytochem Lett 2013;6:179-82.

  71. Rashid MI, Mujawar LH, Mujallid MI, Shahid M, Rehan ZA, Khan MKI, et al. Potent bactericidal activity of silver nanoparticles synthesized from Cassia fistula fruit. Microb Pathog 2017;107:354-60. 

  72. Arulpandi, R Sangeetha. Antibacterial activity of fistulin: a protease inhibitor purified from the leaves of Cassia fistula. Int Sch Res Notices 2012:1-4. 2012/584073.

  73. Seyyednejad SM, Motamedi H, Vafei M, Bakhtiari A. The antibacterial activity of Cassia fistula organic extracts. Jundishapur J Microbiol 2014;7:e8921. 

  74. Bhalodia NR, Shukla VJ. Antibacterial and antifungal activities from leaf extracts of Cassia fistula L.: an ethnomedicinal plant. J Adv Pharm Technol Res 2011;2:104-9. 

  75. Bhalodia NR, Nariya PB, Acharya RN, Shukla VJ. In vitro antibacterial and antifungal activities of Cassia fistula Linn. fruit pulp extracts. Ayu 2012;33:123-9.

  76. Duraipandiyan V, Ignacimuthu S. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of Cassia fistula L.: an ethnomedicinal plant. J Ethnopharmacol 2007;112:590-4. 

  77. Yadava RN, Verma V. A new biologically active flavone glycoside from the seeds of Cassia fistula (Linn.). J Asian Nat Prod Res 2003;5:57-61. 

  78. Lachumy SJ, Zuraini Z, Sasidharan S. Antimicrobial activity and toxicity of methanol extract of Cassia fistula seeds. Res J Pharm Biol Chem Sci 2010;1:391-8. 

  79. Akanmu MA, Iwalewa EO, Elujoba AA, Adelusola KA. Toxicity potentials of Cassia fistula fruits as a laxative with reference to Senna. Afr J Biomed Res 2004;7:23-6. 

  80. Agnihotri A, Singh V. Effect of Tamarindus indica linn. and Cassia fistula linn. stem bark extracts on oxidative stress and diabetic conditions. Acta Pol Pharm 2013;70:1011-9. 

  81. Ilavarasana R, Mallikab M, Venkataraman S. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of Cassia fistula linn bark extracts. Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med 2005;2:70-85. 

  82. Abid R, Mahmood R. Acute and sub-acute oral toxicity of ethanol extract of Cassia fistula fruit in male rats. Avicenna J Phytomed 2019;9:117-25.