Department of Biotechnology, School of Chemical and Biotechnology, SASTRA University, Thirumalaisamudram, Thanjavur 613401, Tamilnadu, India
Received: 19 Oct 2015 Revised and Accepted: 30 Dec 2015
Nardostachys jatamansi is a flowering plant of the Valerianaceae family, which is a native plant of the Indian and Nepal Himalaya. It is found from 2200m to 5000m asl. in random forms. It is also called as spikenard, nard, nardin, or muskroot used in the formulation of traditional Ayurvedic medicines as well as modern herbal preparations for curing various ailments. The plant abounds in sesquiterpenes predominantly; jatamansone and nardostachone. Nardostachys jatamansi possesses biological properties such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticholinesterase, oxidative stress, antidepressant and anti-inflammatory activities. It is also useful in the management of insomnia and CNS disorders. This study has detailed information regarding the various activities and mainly focuses on the pharmacological activity of Nardostachys jatamansi.
Keywords: Biological perspectives, Nardostachys jatamansi
© 2016 The Authors. Published by Innovare Academic Sciences Pvt Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)
Plant is a natural and one of the most important sources for medicine. The use of plants to heal or combat diseases is probably as old as humankind. It has been estimated that 14-28% of higher plant species are used medicinally and that 74% of pharmacologically active plant-derived components were discovered after following up ethnomedicinal use of plants . WHO potrayed that about 80% of the world’s population believes on the ancient and traditional plant-based treatment for different ailments . The plant extracts from various parts are of great importance in therapeutics as they have been discovered to contain many biological properties . In recent years, scientists have focussed the attention of research towards phytochemicals to cure disorders. Nootropic herbs refer to the medicinal role of various plants/parts for their properties by the active phytochemicals including alkaloids, steroids, saponins, terpenoids, flavonoids, phenolics, etc. .
Nardostachys jatamansi (D. Don) DC, a critically endangered rhizome-bearing medicinal plant, is restricted to specialized habitats in high altitudes of the Himalaya, ranging from 3000 to 5000m asl. . Jatamansi, botanically equated to Nardostachys jatamansi, is an important drug of Ayurveda and used in different traditional systems of medicine such as Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, etc. . Rhizomes and roots are used as a tranquilizer, laxative, cardiac tonic, for curing vertigo, nervous headache, low and high blood pressure, etc . Hence this present study explores on the various activities and focuses on the basic pharmacological activities namely antioxidant, oxidative stress, anticholinesterase, anti-inflammatory, antidepressant, antimicrobial, phytochemical, neurotoxic, etc.
Chaudhary et al., 2015 evaluated antioxidant activity in breast carcinoma from roots and rhizomes of N. Jatamansi . Mathew et al., 2014 studied antioxidant activity of N. jatamansi by DPPH scavenging assay with IC50 value<10 g/ml . Mishra et al., 2014 prepared herbal antioxidant face cream from the ethanol extract of N. jatamansiand showed IC50 value of 58.39 g/ml .
The antioxidant activities of methanol extract of N. jatamansiwere found to contain only protocatechuic and syringic acids, which was analysed by Panday et al., 2013 . Dugaheh et al., 2013 studied the antioxidant effect of N. jatamansi, which inhibited beta-carotene oxidation . The calibration curve of valerenic acid was linear in the range of 2-51 mg/l. The antioxidative potential of a hydroalcohol extract of N. jatamansi (NJE) rhizomes were studied by Sharma et al., 2012 that exhibited free radical scavenging, against DPPH and superoxide anions and the extract exhibited high reduction capability and powerful free radical scavenging, especially against DPPH and superoxide anions as well as a moderate effect on NO .
The antioxidant potential of the essential oil of N. jatamansi DC roots, was able to reduce the stable radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) to yellow-colored DPPH-H was studied by Parveen et al., 2012 . Rasheed et al., 2011 investigated the aqueous root extract from N. jatamansi for its antioxidant activity and the increased generation of TBARS and reduced GSH were restored to near normal levels . The antioxidant potential of N. jatamansi was examined byKumari et al., 2010 and in-vitro lipid peroxidation was reported due to the presence of phenols, flavonoids, alkaloids . The antioxidant effects of NJE which tended to normalize augmented lipid peroxidation, nitrite, superoxide dismutase activities and catalase level were studied by Lyle et al., 2009 . Lyle et al., 2009 evaluated the antioxidant effect of hydro-ethanol extract (70%) of N. jatamansi (NJE) that reversed the stress-induced elevation of LPO and NO levels .
The volatile oil of NRR (the root and rhizome of N. jatamansi DC.), that stimulated the gene expressions of self-defence antioxidant enzymes and activated the phosphorylation of Akt in cultured H9c2 cells was studied by Maiwulanjiang et al., 2014 . The study on a protective role in H2O2-induced oxidative stress in C6 glioma cells by extracts from N. jatamansi rhizomes was done by Dhuna et al., 2013 which increased the level of antioxidant enzymes and reduced Lipid peroxidation . Lyle et al., 2012 investigated the anti-stress activity of N. jatamansi (NJE) on CRS model that significantly mitigated CRS induced altered level of neurotransmitters in different brain regions . The neuroprotective efficacy of antioxidants with the combined treatment with the extract of N. jatamansi (N), crocetin (C) and selenium(Se) as sodium selenite performed by Khan et al., 2012 reduced the level of TBARS, and elevated the content of glutathione and activities of enzymes . Suchitra et al., 2012 studied the anxiolytic and protective effect of the ethanolic extract of N. jatamansi thatcaused depletion in lipid peroxidation and elevation in GSH . The modulatory effect of N. jatamansi DC on benzoyl peroxide-induced oxidative stress thatresulted a reduction in lipid peroxidation and xanthine oxidase activities (p<0.05) was investigated by Ali et al., 2005 .
Mathew et al., 2014 studied the, methanolic extract of N. jatamansi for improving cognitive function for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity andshowed IC50 values<100 g/ml . The various effects of N. jatamansi root ethanol extract (NJE) on the central nervous system was investigated by Karkada et al., 2011 and showed a higher level of AChE activity in the frontal cortex (179% higher) and hippocampus (36% higher) . Mukherjee et al., 2007 studied acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibiting activity ofN. jatamansi and it inhibited 50% of AChE activity at a concentration of 100-150 g/ml . The methanol and water extracts of N. jatamansifor acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity in which methanol extract was found to have IC50 value 47.21g/ml was studied by Vinutha et al., 2007 .
Li et al., 2014 studied the methanol extracts of N. jatamansi (D. Don) DC (NJ) roots for anti-inflammatory activities, and it downregulated both iNOS and COX-2 expression and mRNA expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis TNF, IL-1, and IL-6 was decreased . The anti-inflammatory effects of N. jatamansi (NJ) against LPS-induced inflammatory responses was studied by Bae et al., 2014 and inhibited the production of cytokines, LPS-induced activation of c-jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38, activation of MAPKs and NF-B . The protective effects of N. jatamansi (NJ) that inhibits endotoxin shock by inhibiting the production of IL-1, IL-6, TNF, and IFN, investigated by Bae et al., 2011 .
Deepa et al., 2013 investigated the antidepressant effect of N. jatamansi ethanol root extract in electron beam irradiated mice, which has shown a significant reduction in the duration of immobility (in seconds) in Forced Swimming Test and Tail Suspension Test . The mechanisms for antidepressant like activity of N. jatamansi in mice, studied by Dhingra et al., 2008, found that it decreased the whole brain MAO-A and MAO-B activities as compared to the control .
Chandrasekhar et al., 2013 performed the Bacterial Reverse Mutation Test with N. jatamansi plant rhizome powder using Salmonella typhimurium tester strains and substantial increase in revertant colony number was not observed in all the Salmonella typhimurium tester strains both in the presence and absence of metabolic activation system up to the dose 5.0 mg/plate . Parveen et al., 2011 studied the antibacterial effect of the essential oil of N. jatamansi DC roots and among Gram-positive bacteria oil exhibited maximum antibacterial activity against B. subtilis followed by S. aureus and Gram-negative bacteria only K. pneumoniae and E. aerogenes were found to be sensitive . The antimicrobial activity of ethanol, ethyl acetate and hexane extracts of N. jatamansi roots was studied by Sohail et al., 2007, among which ethanol root extract exhibited maximum antimicrobial activity against all the tested bacteria and fungi, at concentrations of 5, 10 and 20 mg/ml .
Etebari et al., 2012 evaluated the aqueous and hydro-alcohol extract of N. jatamansi and were genotoxic in the concentrations 5 and 10 mg/ml, respectively . Patil et al., 2012 aimed to assess the neuroprotective potential of alcohol extract of roots and rhizomes of N. jatamansi (ANJ) and its triterpenes (TNJ) in reserpine-induced orofacial dyskinesia, which significantly inhibited reserpine-induced VCM, TP, and catalepsy, and exhibited elevation in the levels of SOD, CAT, and GSH and inhibition of lipid peroxidation (LPO) . The effect of ethanol extract of the roots of N. jatamansi DC on anticonvulsant activity and neurotoxicity was studied by Rao et al., 2005 and treatment resulted in a significant increase in the protective index (PI) of phenytoin from 3.63 to 13.18 .
Chaudhry et al., 2015 determined MTT assay for NJM, which exhibited the highest antiproliferative activity (IC50: 58.01±6.13 and 23.83±0.69g/ml in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 respectively) . Maiwulanjiang et al., 2015 investigated the vascular benefit of Nardostahyos Radix Rhizoma (NRR; the root and rhizome of N. jatamansi DC.) and found that the phosphorylation level of Akt kinase is increased, which was partially attenuated by PI3K/Akt inhibitor LY294002 . The interaction between lithium carbonate and N. jatamansi extract (NJE) was studied by Kasture et al., 2014 and confirmed that rats receiving lithium carbonate and NJE showed significantly diminished anxiolytic activity . Gowda et al., 2013 investigated the protective effect of N. jatamansi root extract (NJE) on the radiation-induced haematological damage in rats that exhibited a time-dependent significant elevation . Thermo-responsive nasal gel of N.
Jjatamansi extract that had a mucoadhesive strength of 1524.44 and 1720.44 dyne/cm2 was formulated and evaluated by Jadhav et al., 2013 . Naveen et al., 2012 investigated the protective effect of N. jatamansi root extract and it was found to play an important role in its radioprotective action without any toxicity . Rasheed et al., 2012 investigated anticataleptic effects of hydro-alcohol root extract from N. jatamansithat restored the increased generation of TBARS and reduced GSH to near normal levels . The effect of ethanol extract of N. jatamansi on the mice exposed to electron beam radiation was studied by Madhu et al., 2012 showed a significant depletion in lipid peroxidation followed by significant elevation in reduced glutathione, total antioxidants, glutathione peroxidase and catalase activity . Gi-Sang et al., 2012 investigated the ability of NJ to ameliorate severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) induced by a choline-deficient diet supplemented with ethionine (CDE) inhibited the secretion of digestive enzymes, cytokine production, and the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) . Bae et al., 2012 determined the potential of the fraction of N. jatamansi (NJ) to ameliorate the severity of acute pancreatitis (AP) and found that it resulted in the in vivo up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) .
Karkada et al., 2012 investigated the potential of N. jatamansi extract (NJE) in protecting against chronic stress-induced impairments in spatial learning and memory and found that NJE treated animals, made significantly more correct choices (38%, P<0.001), and fewer reference memory errors (53%, P<0.01) . The inhibitory effects of N. jatamansi (NJ) on alcoholic chronic pancreatitis (ACP) was examined by Bae et al., 2012, the treatment increased the pancreatic acinar cell survival and reduced collagen deposition and pancreatic stellate cell (PSC) activation . The anti amnesic activity of methanol extract of N. jatamansi DC (MENJ) rhizome was studied by Rezaie et al., 2010 on sleep deprived (SD) amnesic mice, showed a significant improvement in learning and cognition parameters in behavioural tests . Rahman et al., 2010 conducted a comparative study of this plant with chemical drugs, and the herbal extract of N. jatamansi with the maximum inhibition was observed at the does of 200 mg/kg of sedative and anxiolytic effect . The anti-diabetogenic mechanism of N. jatamansi extract (NJE) was investigated by Song et al., 2010 and found that NJE protected against cytokine-mediated cytotoxicity, and resulted in a significant reduction in cytokine-induced NF-B activation . Bae et al., 2010 investigated the effect of N. jatamansi on cerulein-induced Ap and treatment caused reductions in pancreatic edema, neutrophil infiltration, serum amylase and lipase levels, serum cytokine levels, and messenger RNA expressions of inflammatory mediators . Rasheed et al., 2009 analyzed anti-parkinsonism effect by measuring various neurological and behavioral parameters of N. jatamansi roots extracted with water (50%) & ethanol (50%) and found that N. jatamansi reversed the haloperidol-induced Parkinsonism significantly (p<0.01), when compared to drugs . The effects of strength training and drug (Jatamansi) on reducing hand tremor in archers was investigated and compared by Laishram et al., 2008, using One Way ANOVA, left and right arm showed significant differences (F = 5.64, p<0.05; F = 8.97, p<0.001) respectively and Group II showed (F = 12.50, p<0.001; F = 9.23, p<0.001) respectively .
The effect of ethanol extract of N. jatamansi rhizomes on Wistar albino rats evaluated by Subashini et al., 2007, showed a significant prevention in the lipid status with the activities of the lipid metabolizing enzymes . Subashini et al., 2007 studied the effect of ethanol extract of N. jatamansi on the mitochondrial and lysosomal damage induced by doxorubicin in rats, extract prevented the mitochondrial respiration, lysosomal integrity, membrane bound phosphatases and ultrastructural studies in doxorubicin-induced rats . Joshi et al., 2006 evaluated the potential of N. jatamansi as a memory enhancer which significantly improved learning and memory in young mice and reversed the amnesia induced by diazepam (1 mg/kg, i. p.) and scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg, i. p.) . Subashini et al., 2006 evaluated the effect of N. jatamansi (rhizomes) and treatment significantly prevented the elevation of serum marker enzymes and restored the enzyme activity and lipid peroxides to near normal levels . Ahmad et al., 2006 evaluated whether ethanol extract of N. jatamansi roots (ENj), can slow the neuronal injury in a 6-OHDA-rat model of Parkinson's and found that the activities of glutathione-dependent enzymes, catalase and superoxide dismutase in the striatum, were dose-dependently restored by Enj . The protective effect of N. jatamansi (NJ) was studied by Salim et al., 2003 and found that it caused a significant elevation in the level of TBARS, and the activities of Na+K+, ATPase and catalase were also decreased . Ali et al., 2000 evaluated the hepatoprotective activity of 50% ethanolic extract of the rhizomes of N. jatamansi and elevated levels of serum transaminases (aminotransferases) and alkaline phosphatase, were significantly lowered in N. jatamansi pretreated rats . The effect of alcoholic extract of the roots of N. jatamansiin male albino Wistar rats studied by Prabhu et al., 1994, resulted in a significant increase in the levels of NE, DA, 5-HT, 5-HIAA, and GABA .
The phytochemical investigation of CHCl3: MeOH (1:1) extract from the rhizomes of N. Jatamansi was studied by Rekha et al., 2013, which led to the isolation of two new sesquiterpenoids named compound 5 and 6 . Jha et al., 2012 studied phytochemical, microbial load estimation of the rhizome in which different extracts showed the difference in the presence of phytochemical constituents but studies showed that all extracts contained valtrate . Mallavadhani et al., 2011 evaluated N. jatamansi using Nardin marker and the LOD and LOQ were 3.050 and 9.277ng/ml respectively . N. jatamansi DC rhizomes, when subjected to different techniques, led to the isolation of nardal, jatamansic acid, and nardin was studied by Gottumukkala, V. R. et al., 2011 . E-2-methyl, 3-(5,9-dimethylbicyclo[4,3,0]-non-9(1)-en-3-yl)-2-propenal from the hexane extract of the rhizomes of N. jatamansi DC was isolated by Venkateswara et al., 2008 . Chatterjee et al., 2005 isolated quiterpene acid, nardin and a new pyranocoumarin from the rhizomes of N. jatamansi and characterized as E-2-methyl, 3-(5,9-dimethylbicyclo[4.3.0]-nonen-9-yl)-2-propenoic acid and 2′,2′-dimethy]-3′-methoxy-3′,4′-dihydropyranocoumarin, respectively . Chatterjee et al., 2000 isolated, nardostachysin from the rhizomes of N. jatamansi, and were established as the 7',8'-dihydroxy-4'-methylene hexahydrocyclopenta-[c]pyran-1'-one-8'-methyl ester of 7,9-guaiadien-14-oic acid .
Two new eudesmanes jatamols, A and R from the roots and rhizomes of N. Jatamansi were isolated by Bagchi et al., 1991 . Bagchi et al., 1990 isolated a new sesqui terpenoid 1 from the roots of N. jatamansi and it has a novel spiranic sesqui terpenoid skeleton . A new diethenoid, bicyclic ketone, C15H22O, named nardostachone, from the roots of N. jatamansi D. C was isolated by Sastry et al., 1967 . A new monoethynoid tricyclic tertiary alcohol, C15H24O, named calarenol, from the roots of N. jatamansi. D. c, was isolated by Sastry et al., 1967 . Shanbhag et al., 1965 isolated several hydrocarbons, a new oxide, alcohols, a poloxygenated crystalline material together with eudesmol, elemol, sitosterol, angelicin and jatamansinol from the oil of the roots of N. Jatamansi . Two terpenic coumarins, oroselol and jatamansin, from the oil obtained from the roots of N. Jatamansi was isolated by Shanbhag et al., 1964 .
Poly herbal formulations
Singh et al., 2015 studied the colouring effect of herbal hair formulations on graying hair. HD-3 formulation, having gudhal, jatamansi, kuth, kattha, amla, coffee and henna, was found to act synergistically in hair colouring action . The neuropsycho-pharmacological effect of a polyherbal formulation (PHF) on the learning and memory processes in rats was investigated by Shah et al., 2011 and found a significant decrease in transfer latency as compared to the control group in EPM . Thorat et al., 2009 evaluated polyherbal formulations for hair growing activity and confirmed that hair growth after treatment with oil exhibited a greater number of hair follicles . The immunomodulatory and antioxidant activity of a polyherbal formulation that increased the rate of carbon clearance and the percent neutrophil adhesion to nylon fibres was assessed by Meera et al., 2008 . Kolte et al., 2008 evaluated the efficacy of herbal formulation in subclinical 24 mastitic cows and were found effective in restoring the altered milk constituents in subclinical mastitis with increased milk production . The antidepressant activity of a polyherbal formulation Anximin was investigated by Mishra et al., 2008 and found that it possesses antidepressant activity acting through 5-HT2A receptors . The effects of a polyherbal formulation Abana that reversed the amnesia induced by scopolamine and diazepam, was investigated by Vasudevan et al., 2008 . Dandagi et al., 2008 explored the hepatoprotective activity of a polyherbal formulation, has shown the significant hepat protective effect by reducing the elevated serum enzyme levels . The effect of PHF (Abana) on the radiation-induced mortality in mice was studied by Jagetia et al., 2003 and the LD50 value was found to be 1.8 g/kg body weight .
Medicinal plants have a promising future as there are about half million plants around the world, and most of them have many biological activities which have not been investigated yet. The rhizomes and roots of the plant have medicinal value and, therefore, have been the focus of chemical studies. N. jatamansi is an important plant of Ayurvedic materia medica. The rhizomes of the plant are used in the Ayurvedic system of medicine as a bitter tonic, stimulant, antispasmodic, and to treat hysteria, convulsions, and epilepsy . The root has been medically used to treat insomnia and blood, circulatory, and mental disorders. Some preparations of the plant have been used as a heptatonic, cardiotonic, analgesic, and diuretic in the Unani system of medicine .
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