BIOCHEMICAL & ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF WILD EDIBLE MUSHROOMS USED FOR FOOD BY TRIBAL OF EASTERN INDIA
Objective: The main objective of this research was to analyze some selected indigenous wild edible mushrooms in Eastern India for their novel antioxidant components and their properties specifically used by primitive tribal groups of Eastern India.
Methods: The antioxidant components were analyzed by standardized spectrophotometric methods. The antioxidant properties were analyzed by DPPH Free radical scavenging & Reducing power ability assay.
Results: The TPC (phenolic content) in the studied edible mushroom varied from 4.55 mg/g (Russula nigricans) to 0.9 mg/g GAE (Lentinus tuberigium). Measured in term of antioxidants Termitomyces group ranked higher than Russula and Volvariella sp. The scavenging effect of studied mushrooms on 1,1 DPPH varied from 61% to as high as 94%. On the other hand, reducing power (RPA) in methanolic extracts were in the order of T. clypeatus (4.21) T. heimi (2.20) ~R. breviceps (1.73) ~ Termitomyces eurrhizus (1.11) ~ T. rufum (1.07). Antioxidant potential inedible wild mushrooms are found to be on account of combinations of biochemicals, rather than any such significant individual components as TPC, AA, or alkaloid.
Conclusion: This is for the first time wild edibles such as Termitomyces clypeatus, Termitomyces eurrhizus, Termitomyces heimii, Russula brevipes, Tuber rufum, Russula nigricans, Volvariella volvaceae, Lentinus fusipes, Lentinus tuberigium and R. lepida from eastern India were observed, collected and subjected to nutritional and biochemical analysis. Of significance is the identification of Tuber rufum and Volvariella volvaceae growing wild as edible mushrooms which have not been profiled in the Indian context. The analysed mushroom especially Lentinus fusipes and Lentinus tuberigium was found valuable in terms of iron and calcium, besides having useful phytochemicals such as phenolics, ascorbic acid, carotenoids.
Keywords: Deciduous forests, Orissa, Wild food, Phenolics, Ergosterol, Termitomyces
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