VALIDATION OF ACCUMULATION OF CAMPTOTHECIN CONTENT, AN ANTI-CANCER ALKALOID IN NOTHAPODYTES NIMMONIANA GRAHAM. IN PHENOTYPIC VARIANTS: METHOD FOR IDENTIFYING HIGH-YIELDING SOURCES OF ALKALOID
Objective: The study was aimed to find the CPT accumulation, in particular organ, via variable extraction method and in vitro propagation method both qualitatively and quantitatively.
Methods: In the present study, the seven phenotypic variants of N. nimmoniana such as dry leaf, fresh barks of plant, induced callus, somatic embryo and suspension culture (In exogenous medium and in pallet) in 100 mg/ml were analyzed for CPT content by TLC (Thin layer chromatography) and HPLC (High performance liquid chromatography).
Results: TLC and HPLC analysis confirm the presence of CPT in dry leaf, fresh barks of the plant, induced callus and somatic embryo. Out of which bark extracts possessed a maximum amount of CPT, i.e. 377.77 Âµg/g, which supposed to be the first choice of CPT source.
Conclusion: Results conclude that the CPT is present in all samples used except exogenous suspension culture, out of which soxhlet bark extract possesses the maximum amount of CPT.
2. Wall ME, Wani MC. Plant antitumor agents II: the structure of two new alkaloids from Camptotheca acuminate. J Org Chem 1968;34:1364-7.
3. Nalawade SM, Abhay PS, Lee CY, Kao CL, Tsay HS. Studies on tissue culture of Chinese medicinal plant resources in Taiwan and their sustainable utilization. Bot Bulla Acad Sci 2003;44:79-98.
4. Govindachari TR, Viswanathan N. Alkaloids of Mappia foetida. Phytochem 1972;11:3529-31.
5. Wall ME, Wani MC. CPT and Analogs: From Discovery to Clinic, CRC Press: Boca Raton; 1995. p. 21-41.
6. Priel E, Showalter SD, Blair DG. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-l) replication in vitro by noncytotoxic doses of CPT, a topoisomerase inhibitor. Aids Res Hum Retroviruses 1991;7:65-72.
7. Takeuchi A, Dohashi K, Fujimoto S, Tanaka K, Suzuki M. A late phase II study of CPT-II in uterine, cervical cancer and ovarian cancer. Jpn J Cancer Chemother 1991;18:1661.
8. Potmesil M. CPT from bench research to hospital. Cancer Res 1994;54:1431-9.
9. Lilenbaum RC, Ratain MJ, Miller AA, Hargis JB, Hollis DR, Rosner GL, et al. Phase I study of paclitaxel and topotecan in patients with advanced tumors: a cancer and leukemia group B study. J Clin Oncol 1995;13:2230-7.
10. Romanelli SP, Perego G, Pratesi N, Carenini M, Zunino TF. In vitro and in vivo interaction between cisplatin and topotecan in ovarian carcinoma systems. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 1998;41:385-90.
11. Vladu B, Jan W, Manikumar MG, Mansukhlal C, Wani ME, Wall ME, et al. 7-and 10-Substituted camptothecin: dependence of topoisomerase I-DNA cleavable complex formation and stability on the 7 and 10-substituents. Mol Pharmacol 2000;57:243â€“51.
12. Bdley AF, Cumming JN, Shapiro TA. Effect of CPT, a topoisomerase I inhibitor, on Plasmodium falciparum. Biochem Pharmacol 1998;55:709-11.
13. Patil A, Patil S, Mahure S, Kale A. UV, FTIR, HPLC confirmation of camptothecin an anticancer metabolite from bark extract of Nothapodytes nimmoniana (J. Graham). A J Ethnol 2014; 1:174-85.
14. Sharma S, Kumar A, Namdeo AG. Pharmacognostical and phytochemical analysis of Nothapodytes nimmoniana stem. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2012;4:455-9.
15. Lokesh P, Balasubramanya S, Anuradha M. Cost effective quantification of camptothecin and a comparative study of its content in Nothapodytes foetida and Ophiorrhiza mungos sourced from selected geographical locations. Oriental Pharm Exp Med 2014;14:87-92.
16. Takeuchi A, Dohashi K, Fujimoto S, Tanaka K, Suzuki M, Terashima Y, et al. A late phase II study of CPT-II in uterine, cervical cancer and ovarian cancer. Jpn J Cancer Chemother 1991;8:1661â€“89.
17. Potmesil M. Camptothecins: from bench research to hospital wards. Cancer Res 1994;54:1431-9.
18. Van-Hengel AJ, Harkes MP, Wichers HJ, Hesselink PGM, Buitelaar RM. Characterization of callus formation and camptothecin production by cell lines of Camtotheca acuminata. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 1992;28:11-8.
19. Aiyama R, Hisako N, Nokata K, Shinohara C, Sawada SA. A Camptothecin derivative from Nothapodytes nimmoniana. Phytochemistry 1988;27:3663-4.
20. Gunasekera SP, Badawi MM, Cordell GA, Farnsworth NR, Chitnis M. Plant anticancer agents and isolation of camptothecin and 9-methoxy camptothecin from Ervatamia heyneana. J Nat Prod 1979;42:475â€“7.
21. Gharpure G, Chavan B, Lele U, Hastak A, Bhave, Malpure N, et al. Camptothecin accumulation in Ophiorrhiza rugosa var. prostrata from Northern Western Ghats. Curr Sci 2010;302â€“4.
22. Namdeo AG, Sharma A. HPLC analysis of camptothecin content in various parts of Nothapodytes foetida collected on different periods. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2012;2:389â€“93.
23. Fulzele D, Satdive RK. Comparison of techniques for the extraction of the anti-cancer drug camptothecin from Nothapodytes foetida. J Chromatogr A 2005;1063:9-13.
24. Roja G, Heble MR. The quinoline alkaloids camptothecin and 9-methoxycamptothecin from tissue cultures and mature trees of Nothapodytes nimmoniana. Phytochemistry 1994;36:65â€“6.
25. Hsiao HY, Cheng TJ, Yang GM, Huang IJ, Chen RLC. Determination of camptothecins in DMSO extracts of Nothapodytes foetida by direct injection capillary electrophoresis. Phytochem Anal 2008;19:136â€“40.
26. Wu TS, Leu YL, Hsu HC, Ou FF, Chen CC, Chen CF, et al. Constituents and cytotoxic principles of Nothapodytes foetida. Phytochemistry 1995;39:383-5.
27. Liaoa N, Zhang P, Ao M, Wang J, Shi Y, Yu L. 9-methoxycamptothecin from Nothapodytes foetida induces apoptosis in Murine sarcoma S180 cells. Z Naturforsch C 2011;66:471-6.
28. Wiedenfeld H, Furmanowa M, Roeder E, Guzeoska J, Gustowski. Camptothecin and 10-hydroxy camptothecin in callus and plantlets of Camptotheca acuminate. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 1997;49:213-8.
29. Pirillo A, Verotta L, Gariboldi P, Torregiani E, Bombardell E. Constituents of Nothapodytes foetida. J Chem Soc Perkin Trans 1995;1:583.
30. Kavitha P, Vasantha Kumar T, Rajasekharan PE, Abdul Kareem VK, Rao VK. Camptothecin and 9-methoxy camptothecin, anti-cancer alkaloids in Nothapodytes nimmoniana from Western Ghats, India. J Med Aromat Plant Sci 2010;32:129.
31. Thengane SR, Kulkarni DK, Shrikhande VA, Joshi SP, Sonawane KB, Krishnamurthy KV. Influence of medium composition on callus induction and camptothecin(s) accumulation in Nothapodytes foetida. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 2003; 72:247-51.
32. Fulzele DP, Satdive RK, Pol BB. Growth and production of camptothecin by cell suspension cultures of Nothapodytes foetida. Planta Med 2001;67:150â€“2.
33. Ciddi V, Shuler ML. Camptothecin from callus cultures of Nothapodytes foetida. Biotechnol Lett 2000;22:129â€“32.