SIGNAL PROCESSING FOR RAMAN SPECTRA FOR DISEASE DETECTION
Keywords:Raman Spectrum, Neural Network (NN), Support Vector Machine (SVM, Logistic Regression Analysis, Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA)
Raman Spectroscopy enables in-depth study into the molecular structure of solid, liquid and gasses from its scattering spectrum. As such, the spectrum could offer a biochemical fingerprint to identify unknown molecules. Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) amplifies the weak Raman signal by 10+3 to 10+7 times, revolutionary making the method appealing to the research community. SERS has been proven useful for disease detection from a medium such as a cell, serum, urine, plasma, saliva, tears. The spectra displayed are noisy and complicated by the presence of other molecules, besides the targeted one. Moreover, the difference between the infected and controlled samples is far too minute for detection by the naked human eyes. Hence, signal processing techniques are found crucial to single out fingerprint of the target molecule from biological spectra. Our work here examines signal processing techniques attempted on SERS spectra for disease detection, such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), Artificial Neural Network (ANN), Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Logistic Regression Analysis (LRA). It is found that PCA-LDA is the most popular (45%), ensued by PCA-ANN (33%) and SVM (22%). PCA-SVM yields the highest in accuracy (99.9%), followed by PCA-ANN (98%) and LRA (97%). PCA-LDA and SVM score the highest in both sensitivity-specificity.
Keywords: Raman Spectra, Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS), Neural Network (NN), Support Vector Machine (SVM), Logistic Regression Analysis (LRA), Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA).
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