UTILIZATION OF WASTE EGGSHELLS FOR PRODUCTION OF RENEWABLE CATALYST FOR TRANSESTERIFICATION
Keywords:waste egg shell, heterogeneous, base catalyst, virgin cooking oil, biodiesel
Objective: This paper deals with the production of a nonconventional heterogeneous base catalyst from waste egg shells and comparison with conventional homogeneous and heterogeneous base catalysts like potassium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide, magnesium oxide and calcium oxide.
Methods: Three types of virgin oil were used to study the biodiesel yield. Trasesterification reaction was performed for the conversion to biodiesel. The biodiesel yield produced from palm oil, coconut oil and sunflower oil catalyzed with commercially available base catalysts was compared with prepared eggshell catalyst. Waste eggshells were calcined at 700 Â°C to 1000 Â°C for various time periods ranging from 2-4 h for the preparation of renewable catalyst after washing with deionizing water. The calcined waste eggshell catalyst was characterized using scanning electron microscope. The prepared catalyst was used for transesterification reaction.
Results: The yield of biodiesel using waste eggshell catalyst is comparable to conventional catalyst like sodium hydroxide with a yield of 95%. Eggshell catalyst has the advantage of reusability and does not require water washing steps. The eggshell catalyst was reused for four times before a decline in its activity. It exhibited lower reusability for coconut and palm oil because of leaching problems.
Conclusion: The prepared biodiesel was subjected to ASTM D6751 standard test to assess the fuel properties. The fuel properties was comparable to commercial diesel and hence it can be used in compression-ignition engines.Keywords: Waste egg shell, Heterogeneous, Base catalyst, Virgin cooking oil, Biodiesel
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