• Hemant Tanwani Department of Pharmacology, M.G.M. Medical College, A. B. Road. Indore (M.P), India
  • Prem Nyati
  • Shubham Atal
  • Ritesh Churihar


Nimodipine, Diazepam, Sertaline, Elevated plus maze, Tail suspension test, Righting reflex


Objective: Study of Nimodipine, a calcium channel blocker was done on experiments involving tail suspension test (TST), elevated plus maze (EPM) test and Phenobarbitone induced sleeping time in Swiss albino mice.

Methods: Nimodipine was given by intraperitoneal (i. p.) route in the dose of 2.5 & 5 mg/kg body wt respectively in albino mice of either sex (n=6) and effects were evaluated on (i) TST for antidepressant activity (ii) EPM for anti-anxiety and (iii) Loss of righting reflex for hypnotic activity and results were compared with the standard drugs like sertraline, diazepam and phenobarbitone respectively. Statistical analysis was done by ANOVA followed by Post hoc Tukey's test using SPSS v.20.0 software.

Results: Nimodipine at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg has shown moderate anti-anxiety and antidepressant activities compared to control with no changes in the activity of acute sertraline; however, the antidepressant activity of subacute sertraline (14 d treatment) was summed up by 2.5 mg/kg dose without any hypnosis. While at higher doses of 5 mg/kg depression, behavior (prolonged time of immobilization on TST) and sedation (prolonged phenobarbitone induced sleep time) were seen.

Conclusion: Nimodipine has shown moderate antidepressant and anti-anxiety activities at low doses and can be used as add-on therapy to routine drugs with least of peripheral side effects.

Keywords: Nimodipine, Diazepam, Sertraline, Elevated plus maze (EPM), Tail suspension test (TST) and righting reflex


Download data is not yet available.


Rang HP, Dale MM. Textbook of pharmacology. 7thEdition. Churchill Livingstone Elsevier, London [UK]; 2012. p. 265-85.

Sharma HL, Sharma KK. Principles of pharmacology. 2ndEdition. Paras Publications, Hyderabad India; 2012.

Gulley LR, Nemeroff CB. Biological basis of anxiety depression. J Clin Psychiatry 1993;54 Suppl I:16-9.

Dongju. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Seo% 20D%5Bauth%5D S Patrick CJ, Kennealy PJ. http:// www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/ pubmed/?term=Kennealy% 20PJ% 5Bauth%5D>Role of Serotonin and Dopamine System Interactions in the Neurobiology of Impulsive Aggression and its comorbidity with other clinical disorders. Aggress Violent Behav 2008;13:383-95.

Baldessarani RJ, Tarzai FI. The pharmacological basis of therapeutics. 12thEdition. McGraw-Hill New York; 2011. p. 461-80.

James BJ, Sadock VA. Schizophrenia in the synopsis of psychiatry. 10thedition. Behavioral Sciences/clinical psychiatry. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins [Philadelphia]; 2007.

Nyati P. Pharmacology SEED. 2nd edition. Global media, India; 2011.

Shrivastava SK. A complete textbook of medical pharmacology. 1st edition. The avichal publishing company, India; 2012.

Lacinova L. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Pubmed/? term= Lacinov%C3%A1%20L%5BAuthor%5D&cauthor=true&cauthor_uid=16096350>. Voltage-dependent calcium channels. Gen Physiol Biophys 2005;24 Suppl 1:1-78.

Schwatz A. Molecular and cellular effects of calcium channel blockers. Am J Cardiol 1992;70:6F-8F.

Tsien RW, Lipscombe D, Madison, Bley DV. Multiple types of neuronal calcium channels & their selective modulation. Trends Neurosci 1988;24 Suppl 1:431-8.

Goodnick PJ. The use of nimodipine in the treatment of mood disorders. Bipolar Disord 2000;2:165-73.

Rataboli P, Garg A, Muchandi K. Antidepressant effect of low dose nimodipine in the mouse behavior despair model. Internet J Pharmacol 2009;8:1.

Vogel HG. Antidepressant activity on the elevated plus maze in drug discovery and evaluation pharmacological assays. 2nd Edition. Springer-Verlag, Berlin [Heidelberg]; 2002.

Kaul PN, Kulkarni SK. New drug metabolism inhibitor of marine origin. J Pharm Sci 1979;67:1293-6.

Pellow S, Johnston AL, File SE. Selective agonists and antagonists for 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor subtypes and interaction with yohimbine and FG 7142 using the elevated plus-maze test in the rat. J Pharmacol 1987;39:917-28.

Sharma AC, Kulkarni SK. Evaluation of learning and memory mechanisms employing elevated plus-maze in rats and mice. Prog Neuro-Psychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 1992;16:117-25.

Pellow S, Chopin P, File SE, Briley M. Validation of open: closed arm entries in an elevated plus-maze as a measure of anxiety in the rat. J Neurosci Methods 1985;14:149-67.

Ongür D, Heckers<http://www.pubfacts.com/author/ Stephan+ Heckers>S: "A role for glia in the action of electroconvulsive therapy". Harv Rev Psychiatry 2004;12 Suppl 5:253-62.

Duman RS. Depression: a case of neuronal life and death? Biol Psychiatry 2004;56 Suppl 3:140-5.

Duman CH<http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Pubmed/? term= Duman%20CH%5BAuthor%5D&cauthor=true&cauthor_uid=16594263>, Duman RS: Neurobiology and treatment of anxiety. Signal transduction and neural plasticity. Handy Exp Pharmacol 2005;169:305-34.

Warner-Schmidt JL, Duman RS. Hippocampal neurogenesis opposing effects of stress and antidepressant treatment. Hippocampus 2006;16 Suppl 3:239-49.

Less S. The relationship of anxiety to depression. Am J Psychother 1982;36:332-49.

Biala Gryzyna, Kruk Marta. Polish academy of sciences. Pologne 2007;59:636-44.

Tanwani H, Pandey SP, Atal S, Nyati P. Evaluation of the anti-psychotic effect of nimodipine using methylphenidate as a model to induce psychosis in albino mice. Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015;4:1047-53.



How to Cite

Tanwani, H., P. Nyati, S. Atal, and R. Churihar. “EVALUATION OF ANTIANXIETY, ANTIDEPRESSANT AND SEDATIVE EFFECTS OF NIMODIPINE IN SWISS ALBINO MICE”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 8, no. 6, June 2016, pp. 260-3, https://innovareacademics.in/journals/index.php/ijpps/article/view/11576.



Original Article(s)