• B. Shivananda Nayak The University of the West Indies, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Department of Preclinical Sciences, Trinidad and Tobago
  • Geetha Bhaktha Research Scientist – II, Multidisciplinary Research Unit, Shimoga Institute of Medical Sciences, Shivamogga, Karnataka, India



Asian Indians, Diabetes mellitus, Ethnic race, Lipid profile


Objective: This was an cross-sectional observational study wherein clinical parameters were compared between the population of two countries like India and Trinidad.

Methods: One hundred and six diabetic and 100 healthy individuals from Dakshina Kannada District of India were chosen and compared with 106 Type 2 diabetic and 100 healthy individuals of Trinidad. Along with anthropometric variables and blood pressure, blood samples were collected from the subjects aged above 35years of both genders who would fit with the inclusion criteria. Total cholesterol, triglyceride, VLDL, LDL and sugar levels were estimated from the blood samples collected.

Results: Though both the study population were of similar BMI, we found considerable higher values from the baseline among the systolic pressure, total cholesterol and fasting blood glucose level in both the countries. Though the normal study population showed a small change in the mean values, most of the difference was not statistically significant. We found that Indian diabetic population had a higher risk of future complication of diabetes with significantly higher LDL (p=0.002) and systolic pressure (p=0.000).

Conclusion: This study shows important difference among biochemical parameters and other risk factors in the Asian phenotypic races with countries like India and Trinidad. The data also showed that Indian diabetic population are at higher risk of developing complications when compared to Trinidadians.


Download data is not yet available.


Shaw RAS, Zimmen PZ. Global estimates of the prevalence of diabetes for 2110 and 2030. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2010;87:4-14.

Geneva W. World Health Organization. Global Health Estimates: Deaths by Cause, Age, Sex and Country 2000-2012; 2014.

Organization WH. Global status report on non-communicable diseases 2014 Geneva; 2012.

Hu FB MJ, Stampfer MJ, Colditz G, Liu S, Solomon CG, Willett WC. Diet, lifestyle, and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in women. N Engl J Med 2001;345:790-7.

Anthony JG, Hanley PAJK, Ken Williams, Andreas Festa, Ralph B, D’AgostinoJr, Lynne E, et al. Prediction of type 2 diabetes mellitus with alternative definitions of the metabolic syndrome the insulin resistance atherosclerosis study. Am Heart Assoc 2005;112:3713-21.

Iris Shai P, Rui Jiang, JoAnn E Manson, Meir J Stampfer, Walter C Willett, Graham A Colditz, et al. Ethnicity, obesity, and risk of type 2 diabetes in women-A 20-year follow-up study. Diabetes Care 2006;29:1585-90.

Mohan SS, Deepa BS, Varghese C. Epidemiology of type 2 diabetes: Indian scenario. Indian J Med Res 2007;125:217-30.

Ramachandran ASC, Viswanathan V, Viswanatha MHS. The risk of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus conferred by obesity and central adiposity in different ethnic groups: a comparative analysis between Asian Indians, Mexican Americans and Whites. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 1997;36:121-5.

Ramachandran AM, Ronald Ching Wan Ma, Snehalatha C. Diabetes in Asia. Lancet 2009;375:408-18.

Deepa R SS, Mohan V. Abdominal obesity. Abdominal obesity, visceral fat and type 2 diabetes-Asian Indian phenotype. In: Mohan V, Rao GHR, editors. Type 2 diabetes in South Asians: Epidemiology, risk factors and prevention. New Delhi: Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers; 2006. p. 138-52.

Zimmet P. Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes-an epidemiological overview. Diabetologia 1982;22:399-411.

International Diabetes Federation [Internet]; 2003.

Ramachandran ASC, Viswanathan V. Low risk threshold for acquired diabetogenic factors in Asian Indians. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2004;65:185-95.

Blaak E. Gender differences in fat metabolism. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2001;4:499-502.

Ramachandran ASC, Kapur A, Vijay V, Mohan V, Das AK, Rao PV, et al. High prevalence of diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance in India: National Urban Diabetes Survey. Diabetologia 2001;44:1094-1.

Williams P, Robinson D. High-density lipoprotein and coronary risks factors in normal men. Lancet 1979;1:72-5.

Thompson PD, Jeffery RW, Wing RR, Wood PD. Unexpected disease in plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol with weight loss. Am J Clin Nutr 1979;32:2016-21.

Deepa R, Sandeep S, Mohan V. Abdominal obesity, visceral fat and type 2 diabetes. Asian Indian Phenotype 2006;2:138-52.

Ali QB, Hassan Y, Abdullah JD. Ifferences in demographics, lipid profile and other clinical characteristics among type 2 diabetic patients in the state of Penang, Malaysia according to gender and races. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2011;4(Suppl 2):130-3.

Lee J, Heng Derrick, Chia KS, Chew SK, Tan BY, Hughes K. Risk factors and incident coronary heart disease in Chinese, Malay, and Asian Males: the Singapore cardiovascular cohort study. Int J Epidemiol 2001;30:983-8.

Poon-King T, Henry MV, Rampersad F. Prevalence and natural history of diabetes in Trinidad. Lancet 1968;291:155-60.

Unnikrishnan R, Anjana RM, Mohan V. Diabetes mellitus and its complications in India. Nat Rev Endocrinol 2016;12:357–70.



How to Cite

Nayak, B. S., and G. Bhaktha. “INCONSISTENT LIPID PROFILES EXHIBITED AMONG THE DIABETIC ASIAN INDIANS OF INDIA AND TRINIDAD–A COMPARATIVE STUDY”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 8, no. 12, Dec. 2016, pp. 60-63, doi:10.22159/ijpps.2016v8i12.13695.



Original Article(s)