• Shweta Kaur School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India
  • Anurag Maurya School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India



Antioxidative enzymes, Photocatalysis, Nanoparticles, Reactive oxygen species, Phototoxicity


Objective: The present study was aimed to evaluate the phototoxic effects of sunlight pre-irradiated/nonirradiated TiO2, TiSiO4 nanoparticles and TiO2 bulk powder to Vigna radiata seedlings.

Methods: Different concentrations (0.05, 0.2, 0.5 and 1.0 g/l) of nano/bulk particles were applied to the germinated seedlings for 24 h and various biochemical end points were assessed. The end points were superoxide dismutase activity, catalase activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) and proline content.

Results: The irradiated nano TiO2 was more phototoxic to the seedlings as compared to both the non-irradiated nano TiO2 as well as the irradiated/non-irradiated TiO2 bulk powder, as revealed by the increased level of antioxidant enzymes activity in irradiated TiO2 nanoparticles treated group. Toxicity in nano TiO2 group was more confined to the lowest concentration (0.05 g/l). Proline, a well-recognized stress biomarker, was found to increase in all the irradiated as well as the non-irradiated groups in a dose dependent manner (0.20 to 1.0 g/l), offering a different mechanism of toxicity from that of antioxidative enzymes. TiSiO4 nanoparticles were not found to be phototoxic significantly under either exposure conditions.

Conclusion: The seedlings of the three treatment groups responded variably to the stress biomarkers, indicating that the mode of action of the nanoparticles to the plant was different from that of the bulk particles in irradiated and non-irradiated conditions and was governed by more than a single factor.


Download data is not yet available.


Prema P, Selvarani M. Evaluation of antibacterial efficacy of chemically synthesized copper and zerovalent iron nanoparticles. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2013;6:222-7.

Chatterjee A, Nishanthini D, Sandhiya N, Abraham J. Biosynthesis of titanium dioxide nanoparticles using Vigna radiata. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2016;28:85-8.

Bhoskar M, Patil P. Development, and evaluation of paclitaxel-loaded nanoparticles using 24 factorial design. Int J Curr Pharm Res 2015;7:64-72.

Averett SB, Averett DR. Inventors; WELL Shield LLC, assignee. Titanium dioxide photocatalytic compositions and uses thereof. United States patent U. S. 8609121 B2; 2013.

Yuan SJ, Chen JJ, Lin ZQ, Li WW, Sheng GP, Yu HQ. Nitrate formation from atmospheric nitrogen and oxygen photocatalyzed by nano-sized titanium dioxide. Nat Commun 2013;4:2249.

Fenoglio I, Greco G, Livraghi S, Fubini B. Non UV-induced radical reactions at the surface of TiO2 nanoparticles that may trigger toxic responses. Chem Eur J 2009;15:4614-21.

Miller RJ, Bennett S, Keller AA, Pease S, Lenihan HS. TiO2 nanoparticles are phototoxic to marine phytoplankton. PloS One 2012;7:e30321.

Jacob DL, Borchardt JD, Navaratnam L, Otte ML, Bezbaruah AN. Uptake and translocation of Ti from nanoparticles in crops and wetland plants. Int J Phytorem 2013;15:142-53.

Servin AD, Morales MI, Castillo-Michel H, Hernandez-Viezcas JA, Munoz B, Zhao L, et al. Synchrotron verification of TiO2 accumulation in cucumber fruit: a possible pathway of TiO2 nanoparticle transfer from soil into the food chain. Environ Sci Technol 2013;47:11592-8.

Ma C, Rui Y, Liu S, Li X, Xing B, Liu L. Phytotoxic mechanism of nanoparticles: the destruction of chloroplasts and vascular bundles and alteration of nutrient absorption. Sci Rep 2015;5:11618.

Conway JR, Beaulieu AL, Beaulieu NL, Mazer SJ, Keller AA. Environmental stresses increase photosynthetic disruption by metal oxide nanomaterials in a soil-grown plant. ACS Nano 2015;9:11737-49.

Ma H, Brennan A, Diamond SA. Photocatalytic reactive oxygen species production and phototoxicity of titanium dioxide nanoparticles are dependent on the solar ultraviolet radiation spectrum. Environ Toxicol Chem 2012;31:2099-107.

Manke A, Wang L, Rojanasakul Y. Mechanisms of nanoparticle-induced oxidative stress and toxicity. BioMed Res Int 2013.

Li M, Yin JJ, Wamer WG, Lo YM. Mechanistic characterization of titanium dioxide nanoparticle-induced toxicity using electron spin resonance. J Food Drug Anal 2014;22:76-85.

Sutar RC, Kalaichelvan VK. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of leaf extracts of holoptelea integrifolia (roxb) planch. Int J Appl Pharm 2014;6:6-8.

Ahamed N. Ecotoxicity concert of nano zero-valent iron particles-a review. J Critical Rev 2014;1:36-9.

Sanders K, Degn LL, Mundy WR, Zucker RM, Dreher K, Zhao B, et al. In vitro phototoxicity and hazard identification of nano-scale titanium dioxide. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2012;258:226-36.

Suttiponparnit K, Jiang J, Sahu M, Suvachittanont S, Charinpanitkul T, Biswas P. Role of surface area, primary particle size, and crystal phase on titanium dioxide nanoparticle dispersion properties. Nanoscale Res Lett 2011;6:27.

Skocaj M, Filipic M, Petkovic J, Novak S. Titanium dioxide in our everyday life; is it safe? Radiol Oncol 2011;45:227-47.

Koce JD, Drobne D, Klancnik K, Makovec D, Novak S, Hocevar M. Oxidative potential of ultraviolet A irradiated or nonirradiated suspensions of titanium dioxide or silicon dioxide nanoparticles on Allium cepa roots. Environ Toxicol Chem 2014;33:858-67.

Lee WM, An YJ. Effects of zinc oxide and titanium dioxide nanoparticles on green algae under visible, UVA, and UVB irradiations: no evidence of enhanced algal toxicity under UV pre-irradiation. Chemosphere 2013;91:536-44.

Meena R, Pal R, Pradhan SN, Rani M, Paulraj R. Comparative study of TiO2 and TiSiO4 nanoparticles induced oxidative stress and apoptosis of HEK-293 cells. Adv Mater Lett 2012;3:459-65.

Bates LS, Waldren RP, Teare ID. Rapid determination of free proline for water-stress studies. Plant Soil 1973;39:205-7.

Prasad KV, Saradhi PP. Effect of zinc on free radicals and proline in Brassica and Cajanus. Phytochemistry 1995;39:45-7.

Claussen W. Proline as a measure of stress in tomato plants. Plant Sci 2005;168:241-8.

Hayat S, Hayat Q, Alyemeni MN, Wani AS, Pichtel J, Ahmad A. Role of proline under changing environments: a review. Plant Signaling Behav 2012;7:1456-66.

Giannopolitis CN, Ries SK. Superoxide dismutases I. Occurrence in higher plants. Plant Physiol 1977;59:309-14.

Sinha AK. Colorimetric assay of catalase. Anal Biochem 1972;47:389-94.

Bradford MM. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. ‎Anal Biochem 1976;72:248-54.

Dhindsa RS, Plumb-Dhindsa P, Thorpe TA. Leaf senescence: correlated with increased levels of membrane permeability and lipid peroxidation, and decreased levels of superoxide dismutase and catalase. ‎J Exp Bot 1981;32:93-101.

Karuppanapandian T, Moon JC, Kim C, Manoharan K, Kim W. Reactive oxygen species in plants: their generation, signal transduction, and scavenging mechanisms. Aust J Crop Sci 2011;5:709.

Sharma P, Jha AB, Dubey RS, Pessarakli M. Reactive oxygen species, oxidative damage, and antioxidative defense mechanism in plants under stressful conditions. J Bot 2012.

Bouguerra S, Gavina A, Ksibi M, da Graça Rasteiro M, Rocha-Santos T, Pereira R. Ecotoxicity of titanium silicon oxide (TiSiO4) nanomaterial for terrestrial plants and soil invertebrate species. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2016;129:291-301.

Chen HZ. Biological fundamentals for the biotechnology of lignocellulose. In: Biotechnology of Lignocellulose. Beijing: Chemical Industry Press; 2014. p. 73-141.

Lodish H, Berk A, Zipursky SL, Matsudaira P, Baltimore D, Darnell J. The dynamic plant cell wall. In: Molecular Cell Biology. 4th ed. New York: WH Freeman; 2000.

White PJ. Ion uptake mechanisms of individual cells and roots: short-distance transport. In: Marschner’s mineral nutrition of higher plants. 3rd ed. London: Academic Press; 2012. p. 9.



How to Cite

Kaur, S., and A. Maurya. “ASSESSMENT OF STRESS END POINTS IN VIGNA RADIATA SEEDLINGS EXPOSED TO PRE-ACTIVATED TIO2 AND TISIO4 NANOPARTICLES UNDER SOLAR RADIATION”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 8, no. 10, Oct. 2016, pp. 198-03, doi:10.22159/ijpps.2016v8i10.13792.



Original Article(s)