• Noor S. Jaafar Department of Pharmacognosy and Medicinal Plants, College of pharmacy, University of Baghda
  • Maha N. Hamad Department of Pharmacognosy and Medicinal Plants, College of pharmacy, University of Baghdad
  • Ibrahim S. Abbas Department of Pharmacognosy and Medicinal Plants, College of pharmacy, University of Al-Mustansiriya
  • Iman S. Jaafar Department of Pharmaceutics College of pharmacy, University of Al-Mustansiriya




Melia azedarach L, Flavoniods, HPLC, HPTLC


Objective: The aim of our study was to compare between flavonoids and phenolic acids contents of leaves and fruits of Melia azedarach since no phytochemical investigation had done previously in Iraq.

Methods: The leaves and fruits of Melia azedarach were extracted by soxhlet using 80% ethanol then the dried extract was suspended in water and fractionated using petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol. The n-butanol fraction was hydrolyzed by acid and partitioned with ethyl acetate. The different fractions containing flavonoids and phenolic acids were analyzed by HPLC and HPTLC.

Results: The HPLC results revealed the presence catechin-7-O-glycoside in fruit only, while kaempferol-7-O-glycoside is found in the leaves only. Catechin and its glycosides are more abundant in the fruits than in the leaves. The HPTLC results revealed that kaempferol and quercetin are present in all fractions of leaves and fruits as aglycones and as glycosides. Free chlorogenic was found in both leaves and fruits.

Conclusion: No major differences were found between the flavonoids and phenolic acids contents of the leaves and fruits of Melia azedarach.


Download data is not yet available.


Jafari S, Saeidnia S, Hajimehdipoor H, Ardekani M, Mohammad Ali F, Hadjiakhoondi A, et al. Evaluation of physicochemical and phytochemical properties of Melia Azedarach. leaves (Family: Meliaceae). Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2013;5:104-7.

Huma Q, Muhammad A, Abida A, Naveed Iqbal R, Sammer F, Muhammad Shoaib A. Ethnopharmacological and phytochemical account of paradise tree (Melia azedarach L.: Meliaceae). Pure Appl Biol 2016;5:5-14.

Beauty AR, Nur Kabidul Azam Md, Abdul Mannan Md, Nasir Ahmed Md, Nazmul Hasan Md. Phytochemistry and pharmacological appraisals of persian lilac (Melia azedarachLinn). Ajethno 2014;1:152-63.

Kumar R, Singh R, Meera RS, Kalidhar SB. Chemical components and insecticidal properties of bakyain (Melia azedarach L.). Agric Rev 2003;24:101-15.

Sunita B. Phytochemical screening and evaluation of its repellent activity of Melia azedarach L. Indo Am J Pharm Res 2013;3:4310-8.

Suresh K, Deepa P, Harisaranraj R, Vaira AV. Antimicrobial and phytochemical investigation of the leaves of Carica papaya L., Cynodon dactylon L. Pers., Euphorbia hirta L., Melia azedarach L. and Psidium guajava L. Ethnobotanical Leaflets 2008;12:1184-91.

Italo Chiffelle G, Amanda Huerta F, Diego Lizana R. Physical and chemical characterization of Melia azedarach L. fruit and leaf for use as a botanical insecticide. Agric Res 2009;69:39-45.

Gebreamkak A, Azerefegne F. Insecticidal activity of chinaberry, endod and pepper tree agains the maize stalk borer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Southern Ethiopia. Int J Pest Manage 1999;45:9-13.

Sultana S, Akhtar N, Asif HM. Phytochemical screening and antipyretic effects of hydromethanol extract of Melia azedarach leaves in rabbits. Bangladesh J Pharmacol 2013;8:214-7.

Petrera E, Coto CE. Effect of the potent antiviral 1-cinnamoyl-3,11-dihydroxymeliacarpin on cytokine production by murine macrophages stimulated with HSV-2. Phytother Res 2014;28:104-9.

Pokhrel B, Sulav R, Sagar R. Phytochemical screening, antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of Melia azedrachta in methanol solvent. World J Pharm Pharm Sci 2015;4:1562-75.

Jabeen K, Javaid A, Ahmad E, Athar M. Antifungal compounds from Melia azedarach leaves for management of ascochytarabiei, the cause of chickpea blight. See comment in PubMed Commons belowNat Prod Res 2011;25:264-76.

Khan IH, Arshad J. Antifungal activity of Melia azedarach Linn fruit extract against Sclerotium rolfsii, the cause of collar rot disease of chickpea. Mycopath 2013;11:9-13.

Vijay Kumar R, Venkat Raji Reddy G, Sathyanarayana J, Bikshapathi T, Krishna Reddy M. Effect of Melia azedarach and Dodonaea viscose aqueous leaf extracts on fertility in male albino rats. Indian J Pharm Biol Res 2013;1:7-12.

Nagiat HT, Fathi AH, Sumalatha G, Fauzi EM, Babu Rao C, Prakash K. Study on antiurolithiatic activity of Melia azadirachta L. aqueous extract in rats. Afr J Plant Sci 2014;2:27-31.

Yogendr B, Kalpana P, Mohan S, Maniyari R, Sunil J, Sampada U. aAntiulcer activity of Melia azedarach Linn in aspirin induced and pylorus ligated rats. J Pharm Res 2009;2:1456-9.

Prashant K, Raghuveer I, Rubina L, Verma A, Kusum S, Vinita A. Antihyperglycemic effect of leaves of Melia azedrach on alloxan induced diabetic rat. IGPPRI 2014;5:1121-4.

Cala AC, Chagas A, Oliveira MC, Matos AP, Borges LM, Sousa LA, et al. In vitro anthelmintic effect of Melia azedarach L. and Trichilia claussenii C. against sheep gastrointestinal nematodes. Exp Parasitol 2012;130:98–102.

Lee YS, IB Chung, Choi WH, Cho YJ, Chu JP, BI Min, et al. Inhibitory effects of Melia azedarach L. extracts on the growth of Trichomonus vaginalis ultrastructural changes of Trichomonus vaginalis by Melia azedarach L. J Protozool Res 2007;17:16-24.

Courrèges MC, Massouh EJ, Coulombié FC. Effect of Melia azedarach L. leaf extracts on human complement and polymorphonuclear leukocytes. J Ethnopharmacol 1994;41:53-7.

Veda Vidya T, Srinivasan D, Sengottuvelu S. Wound healing potential of Melia azedarach L. leaves in alloxan induced diabetic rats. GJRMI 2012;1:265–71.

Ntall NG, Cottiglia F, Bueno CA, Alché LE, Leonti M, Vargiu S, et al. Cytotoxic tirucallane triterpenoids from Melia azedarach fruits. Molecules 2010;15:5866-77.

Sisa M, Bonnet SL, Ferreira D, Van der Westhuizen JH. Photochemistry of flavonoids. Molecules 2010;15:5196-245.

Shashank K, Abhay PK. Chemistry and biological activities of flavonoids. Sci World J 2013;2013:1-16.

Kelly EH, Anthony RT, Dennis JB. Flavonoid antioxidants: chemistry, metabolism and structure-activity relationships. J Nutr Biochem 2002;13:572–84.

Permender R, Hema C, Sushila R, Dharmender R, Vikash K, Kanchan K. Mechanism of action of flavonoids as anti-inflammatory agents. Inflammation Allergy Drug Targets 2009;8:229-35.

Bhattacharya S, Maity S, Pramnaick D, Hazra AK, Choudhury M. HPLC of a phenolic compound, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of bulbs from three ornithagalum species available in India. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2016;8:187-92.

Hamad MN, Sulaiman AA, Numan IT, Abdul Razak SA. Study of the anticonvulsant effect of ethyl acetate fraction of Matricaria recutita extract in mice. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6:224-7.

Srinivasa RA, Mohammed Fazil A. Simultaneous estimation of quercetin and rutin in ethanolic extract of Melia azedarach Linn leaves by HPTLC method. Asian J Biochem Pharm Res 2013;3:56-9.

Vijayanand S, Wesely EG. Phytochemical studies of Melia azedrach and Murryaya koeingi. Int J Pharma Sci Res 2011;2:1298-302.

Samineh J, Soodabeh S, Homa H, Mohammad Reza Shams A, Mohammad Ali F, Abbas H, et al. Cytotoxic evaluation of Melia azedarach in Comparison with, Azadirachta Indica and its phytochemical investigation. Daru 2013;21:1-7.

Aoudia H, Oomah BD, Zaidi F, Zaidi-Yahiaoui R, Drover J CG, Harrison JE. Phenolics, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Melia azedarach extracts. Int J Appl Res Nat Prod 2013;6:19-29.

SalibAffiliated withChemistry of Tanning Materials and Leather Technology, National Research Centre, Dokki JY, MichaelAffiliated withChemistry of Tanning Materials and Leather Technology, National Research Centre, Dokki Email author HN, El-Nogoumy SI. New lactoyl glycoside quercetin from Melia Azedarach leaves. Chem Nat Compd 2008;44:13-5.

Raimondi S, Anighoro A, Quartieri A, Amaretti A, Tomás-Barberán FA, Rastelli G, et al. Role of bifidobacteria in the hydrolysis of chlorogenic acid. Microbiologyopen 2015; 4:41–52.



How to Cite

Jaafar, N. S., M. N. Hamad, I. S. Abbas, and I. S. Jaafar. “QUALITATIVE PHYTOCHEMICAL COMPARISON BETWEEN FLAVONOIDS AND PHENOLIC ACIDS CONTENTS OF LEAVES AND FRUITS OF MELIA AZEDARACH (FAMILY: MELIACEAE) CULTIVATED IN IRAQ BY HPLC AND HPTLC”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 8, no. 10, Oct. 2016, pp. 242-50, doi:10.22159/ijpps.2016v8i10.13868.



Original Article(s)