A STUDY OF THE HYPOLIPIDEMIC AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF WHOLE PLANT EXTRACTS OF IPOMOEA AQUATICA FORK IN EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED HYPERLIPIDEMIA IN RABBITS
Keywords:Ipomoea aquatica, Hypolipidemic, Antioxidant property
Objective: The aim of the study has been to investigate the possible hypolipidemic and antioxidant properties of the whole plant extract of Ipomoea aquatica in experimentally induced hyperlipidemia in rabbits.
Methods: Ethanolic extract of I. aquatica whole plant (EEIAWP) was prepared by percolation method. The extract was evaluated for hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities using 400 mg/kg body weight per day in a high fat diet induced hyperlipidemia in rabbits. The results were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Bonferroni's multiple comparison tests and compared to the normal control, experimental control and the standard drug (atorvastatin 2.1 mg/kg body weight per day) groups. The results were expressed as meanÂ±standard error of mean (SEM). Values with p<0.05 were considered significant.
Results: Oral administration of EEIAWP in the test group showed a significant reduction in the serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and a significant increase in the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) when compared to the experimental control group. There were also significantly elevated catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities and significantly lower malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the test group compared to the experimental group. Similar results were also found in the standard drug group.
Conclusion: The results of our experiment demonstrated that EEIAWP possesses significant antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant activities and hence could be a potential source of medication as an adjuvant to the existing therapy for treatment of dyslipidemia.
Dubey AK, Devi A, Kutty G, Shankar RP. Hypolipidemic activity of ginkgo biloba extract, Egb 761 in hypercholesterolemia wistar rats. Iranian J Pharmacol Ther 2004;4:9-12.
Gopa B, Bhatt J, Hemavathi K. A comparative clinical study of the hypolipidemic efficacy of Amla (Emblica officinalis) with 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme-A reductase inhibitor simvastatin. Indian J Pharmacol 2012;44:238â€“42.
Ranjani H, Pradeepa R, Mehreen TS, Anjana RM, Anand K, Garg R, et al. Determinants, consequences, and prevention of childhood overweight and obesity: an Indian context. Indian J Endocrinol Metab 2014;18:17-25.
Wikipedia. Obesity [Internet]; 2014. Available from: http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Obesity. [Last accessed on 26 Jun 2015].
Bersot TP. Drug therapy for hypercholesterolemia and dyslipidemia. In: Brunton LL, Chabner BA, Knollmann BC. editors. Goodman and Gillmanâ€™s The Pharmacological Basis of Theraputics. 12th ed. New Delhi: McGraw-Hill; 2011. p. 877â€“908.
Deng R, Chow TJ. Hypolipidemic, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities of microalgae Spirulina. Cardiovasc Ther 2010;28:33â€“45.
Jayachitra A, Krithiga N. Study on antioxidant property in selected medicinal plant extracts. Med Aromat Plants 2012;2:495-500.
J Bhakta, P Majumdar, Y Munekage. Antimicrobial efficacies of methanol extract of Asteracantha longifolia, Ipomoea aquatica and Enhydra fluctuans against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus. Internet J Alternative Med 2008;7:1-6.
Manvar MN, Desai TR. Phytochemical and pharmacological profile of Ipomoea aquatica. Indian J Med Sci 2013;67:49-60.
Shyamala MP, Venukumar MR, Latha MS. Antioxidant potential of the Syzygium aromaticum (Gaertn.) Linn. (cloves) in rats fed with high-fat diet. Indian J Pharmacol 2003;35:99â€“103.
Tiwari P, Kumar B, Kaur M, Kaur G, Kaur H. Phytochemical screening and extraction: a review. Int Pharm Sci 2011;1:98-106.
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Guidelines for the testing of chemicals 425. Adopted; 2008. p. 1-4.
Ghosh MN. Toxicity studies. Fundamentals of Experimental Pharmacology. 5th ed. Kolkata: Hilton and Company; 2008. p. 165-72.
The University of Toledo. Guidelines for blood collection: Rodents and Rabbits; 2011. p. 1-7.
Allain C, Poon L, Chan C, Richmond W, Fu P. Enzymatic determination of serum total cholesterol. Clin Chem 1974; 20:470-5.
Fossati P, Prencipe L. Serum triglycerides determined colorimetrically with an enzyme that produces hydrogen peroxide. Clin Chem 1982; 28:2077-80.
Grillo F, Izzo C, Mazzotti G, Murador E. Improved method for determination of high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol II. Enzymatic determination of cholesterol in high-density lipoprotein fractions with a sensitive reagent. Clin Chem 1981;27:375-9.
Friedewald W, Levy R, Fredrickson D. Estimation of the concentration of lowâ€“density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without the use of the preparative ultracentrifuge. Clin Chem 1972;18:499â€“502.
Nwagha UI, Ikekpeazu EJ, Ejezie EE, Maduka IC. Atherogenic index of plasma as a useful predictor of cardiovascular risk among postmenopausal women in Enugu, Nigeria. Afr Health Sci 2010;10:248-52.
Beers R, Sizer I. A spectrophotographic method for measuring the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide by catalase. J Biol Chem 1952;195:133-40.
Kakkar P, Das B, Viswanathan PM. A modified spectrophotometric assay of superoxide dismutase. Indian J Biochem Biophys 1984;21:130-2.
Satoh K. Serum lipid peroxide in cerebrovascular disorders determined by a new colorimetric method. Clin Chim Acta 1978;90:37-43.
Sampathkumar MT, Kasetti RB, Nabi SA, Sudarshan PR, Swapna S, Apparao C. Antihyperlipidemic and antiatherogenic activities of Terminalia pallida Linn. fruits in high-fat diet induced hyperlipidemic rats. J Pharm Bioallied Sci 2011Í¾3:449â€“52.
Asgary S, Rafieian-Kopaei M, Najafi S, Heidarian E, Sahebkar A. Antihyperlipidemic effects of Sesamum indicum L. in rabbits fed a high-fat dietâ€. Sci World J 2013. http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1155/2013/365892
Arts ICW, Hollman PCH. Polyphenols and disease risk in epidemiologic studies1â€“4. Am J Clin Nutr 2005;81:317Sâ€“25S.
Zern TL, Wood RJ, Greene C, West KL, Liu Y, Aggarwal D, et al. Grape polyphenols exert a cardioprotective effect in pre-and postmenopausal women by lowering plasma lipids and reducing oxidative stress. J Nutr 2005;135:1911â€“7.
Castelli WP, Anderson K, Wilson PW, Levy D. Lipids and risk of coronary artery disease. The Framingham Study. Ann Epidemol 1992;2:23-8.
Igweh JC, Nwagha IU, Okaro JM. The effects of menopause on the serum lipid profile of normal females of south-east Nigeria. Nigerian J Physiol Sci 2005;20:48-53.
Dobiasova M. AIP-atherogenic index of plasma as a significant predictor of cardiovascular risk: from research to practice. Vnitr Lek 2006;52:64-71.
Narayana K, Reddy M, Chaluvadi M, Krishna D. Bioflavonoids classification, pharmacological, biochemical effects and therapeutic potential. Indian J Pharmacol 2001;33:2-16.
Jeong YJ, Choi YJ, Kwon HM, Kang SW, Park HS, Lee M, et al. Differential inhibition of oxidized LDL-induced apoptosis in human endothelial cells treated with different flavonoids. Br J Nutr 2005;93:581â€“91.
Daniel R, Devi K, Augusti K, Nair C. Mechanism of action of antiatherogenic and related effects of Ficus bengalensis Linn. flavonoids in experimental animals. Indian J Exp Biol 2003;41:296-303.
Nichols LA, Jackson DE, Manthey JA, Shukla SD, Holland LJ. Citrus flavonoids repress the mRNA for stearoyl-CoA desaturase, a key enzyme in lipid synthesis and obesity control, in primary rat hepatocytes. Lipids Health Dis 2011;10:36.
Racette SB, Lin X, Lefevre M, Spearie CA, Most MM, Ma L, et al. Dose effects of dietary phytosterols on cholesterol metabolism: a controlled feeding study. Am J Clin Nutr 2010;91:32-8.
Saeed N, Khan MR, Shabbir M. Antioxidant activity, total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of the whole plant extracts Torilis leptophylla L. BMC Complementary Altern Med 2012;12:221-32.
Visavadiya NP, Narasimhacharya AVRL. Hypolipidemic and antioxidant activities of Asparagus racemosus in hypercholesteremic rats. Indian J Pharmacol 2005;37:376-80.
Vazquez-Castilla S, De la Puerta R, Garcia-Gimenez M, Fernandez-Arche M, Guillen-Bejarano R. Bioactive constituents from Trigueroâ€ Asparagus improve the plasma lipid profile and liver antioxidant status in hypercholesterolemic rats. Int J Mol Sci 2013;14:21227-39.
Chichioco-Hernandez C, Leonido F. Weight-lowering effects of Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Cassia fistula and Senna alata leaf extracts. J Med Plants Res 2011;5:452-5.