AN OVERVIEW OF RECOMBINANT VACCINE TECHNOLOGY, ADJUVANTS AND VACCINE DELIVERY METHODS
Development of an effective vaccine is of paramount important in disease prevention and control. As such, recombinant technology can serve as a gateway for the development of safe and effective vaccines that can be delivered effectively with an appropriate adjuvant. Therefore, this paper aimed to review the role of recombinant vaccine technology, new adjuvants and the challenge of vaccine delivery. Related peer-reviewed journal article searches were conducted using a subscribed database at the Universiti Putra Malaysia library, involving areas of Health Sciences and Medicine via Medline, SCOPUS and Google Scholar. New generation vaccines include highly purified synthetic or recombinant antigens that stimulate effective cell-mediated immune and mucosal immunity. In order to enhance their efficacy, a number of adjuvants are used. Efforts have also been made to explore the usage of non-invasive routes of administration, devices and equipment for optimized antigen and immune-potentiator delivery of the immune system. Recombinant vaccine technology is rapid, compared to the traditional method of vaccine development and does not require the handling of live viruses. It is, therefore, a promising technology for developing a future vaccine to curb emerging and re-emerging viral infections that may be life-threatening or teratogenic.
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