A REVIEW OF LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF LEPTOSPIROSIS


Waleed Al-orry, Moustapha Arahou, Rachida Hassikou, Zakaria Mennane

Abstract


Leptospirosis is an infectious disease affect human and animal. The diagnosis is challenging due to none specific clinical features, lack of awareness and poor access to health care. Therefore the disease becomes underreported. Early diagnosis is essential because antibiotic treatment is most effective when it is initiated early. However, laboratories tests for early diagnosis still lacking. The disease may be demonstrated by direct or indirect methods. Direct methods are the detection of the organism or its components and indirect methods are the detection of specific antibodies of the organism. This review highlights the major diagnostic techniques in leptospirosis with their advantages and disadvantages as well as the treatment. The search criteria focused on the thesis we obtained and searching in the websites (Google Scholar, PubMed, Science Direct and LibGen, etc.) using the keywords: leptospirosis, leptospira, zoonotic diseases, PCR, Elisa, MAT, SAT, Darkfield microscopic, leptospirosis diagnostic, leptospira treatment, Doxycycline and tropical diseases.


Keywords


Leptospirosis, Diagnosis, Treatment, Zoonoses, Tropical diseases, MAT

| HTML | PDF |

References


Levett PN. Leptospirosis. Clin Microbiol 2001;14:296–326.

Rao RS, Gupta N, Bhalla P, Agarwal SK. Leptospirosis in India and the rest of the World. Braz J Infect Dis 2003;7:178-93.

Dreyfus A, Wilson P, Benschop J, Verdugo C, Collins-Emerson J. Economic loss associated with leptospira seroprevalence. In: New Zealand Sheep, Cattle, and Deer. Institute of Veterinary Animal and Biomedical Sciences Massey University; 2013.

Fang F. Leptospirosis diagnostics and exposure at the human and animal interface in New Zealand. Massey University; 2014.

Toyokawa T, Makoto O, Nobuo K. Diagnosis of acute leptospirosis. Expert Rev Anti-Infect Ther 2011;9:111–21.

Manolito L, Marissa M, Rhona G, Raul P, Mario M, Cecilia S, et al. Leptospirosis. Philippine Society for Microbiology and Infectious Diseases; 2010. p. 1-66.

Tilahun Z, Reta D, Simenew K. Global epidemiological overview of leptospirosis. Int J Microbiol Res 2013;4:9–15.

Hartskeerl RA, Collares Pereira M, Ellis WA. Emergence, control and re-emerging leptospirosis: dynamics of infection in the changing world. Clin Microbiol Infect 2011;17:494–501.

Vijayachari P, Sharma S, Natarajaseenivasan K. Laboratory diagnosis. Leptospirosis, laboratory manual. Regional Medical Research Centre, Indian Council of Medical Research, Port Blair and World Health Organization; 2007. p. 27-45.

Burriel AR. Leptospirosis : an important zoonotic diseases. Current research technology and education topics in applied microbiology and microbial biotechnology. Badajoz: Formatex; 2010. p. 687–93.

WHO. Leptospirosis surveillance. Report 18 December; 2008.

Washington State Department of Health. Leptospirosis. Reporting and Surveillance Guidelines; 2015. p. 1–7.

Natarajaseenivasan K, Raja V, Narayanan R. Rapid diagnosis of leptospirosis in patients with different clinical manifestations by 16S rRNA gene-based nested PCR. Saudi J Biol Sci 2012;19:151–5.

Picardeau M, Bertherat E, Jancloes M, Skouloudis AN, Durski K, Hartskeerl RA. Rapid tests for diagnosis of leptospirosis: Current tools and emerging technologies. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2014;78:1–8.

Picardeau M. Diagnosis and epidemiology of leptospirosis. Med Mal Infect 2013;43:1–9.

Faine S. Leptospira and leptospirosis. CRC Press Inc; 1994.

Connaissances document destine aux professionnel de sante. Le point sur la leptospirose France; 2012. p. 1-2.

Bharti A, Nally J, Ricaldi J, Matthias M, Diaz M, Lovett M, et al. Leptospirosis: a zoonotic disease of global importance. Lancet Infect Dis 2003;3:757-71.

Faine P, Adler S, Bolin B, Perolat C. Leptospira and Leptospirosis. 2ed ed Melbourne. Australia MediSci; 1999.

Andersson L. Leptospirosis the neglected disease Clinical picture and epidemiology at the Andaman Islands India. Göteborg University Sweden; 2012.

Musso D, La Scola B. Laboratory diagnosis of leptospirosis: a challenge. J Microbiol Immunol Infect 2013;46:245–52.

Draghi M, Brihuega B, Benitez D, Sala J, Biotti G, Pereyra M. Leptospirosis outbreak in calves from Corrientes Province, Argentina. Rev Argent Microbiol 2011;43:42–4.

WHO. Human leptospirosis: guidance for diagnosis, surveillance and control. WHO Libr 2003;45:1–109.

Ben Adler, Alejandro de la Peña Moctezuma. Leptospira and leptospirosis. Vet Microbiol 2010;140:287–96.

Plank R, Dean D. Overview of the epidemiology, microbiology, and pathogenesis of Leptospira spp. in humans. Microbes Infect 2000;2:1265–76.

The center for food security and public health. Leptospirosis. lowa State University; 2013. p. 1–10.

Boonsilp S, Thaipadungpanit J, Amornchai P, Wuthiekanun V, Chierakul W, Limmathurotsakul D, et al. Molecular detection and speciation of pathogenic Leptospira spp. in blood from patients with culture-negative leptospirosis. BMC Infect Dis 2011;11:338.

Finger M, Roque I, Filho D, Leutenegger C, Estrada M, Ullmann L. Serological and molecular survey of Leptospira spp. among cart horses from an endemic area of human leptospirosis in Curitiba, southern Brazil. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 2014;56:473–6.

Magajevski F, Silva Girio R, Mathias L, Myashiro S, Genovez M, Scarcelli P. Detection of Leptospira spp. in the semen and urine of bulls serologically reactive to leptospira interrogans serovar Hardjo. Brazilian J Microbiol 2005;36:43–7.

Zakeri S, Sepahian N, Afsharpad M, Esfandiari B, Ziapour P, Djadid N. Molecular epidemiology of Leptospirosis in northern Iran by nested polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequencing methods. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2010;82:899–903.

Costa F, Hagan J, Calcagno J, Kane M, Torgerson P, Martinez-Silveira M, et al. Global morbidity and mortality of leptospirosis: a systematic review. PLoS Neglected Trop Dis 2015;9:1–19.

Natarajaseenivasan K, Vijayachari P, Sharma S, Sugunan A, Vedhagiri K, Selvin J, et al. FlaB PCR-based identification of pathogenic leptospiral isolates. J Microbiol Immunol Infect 2010;43:62–9.

de Abreu Fonseca C, Teixeira de Freitas V, Caló Romero E, Spinosa C, Arroyo Sanches M, Da Silva M, et al. Polymerase chain reaction in comparison with serological tests for early diagnosis of human leptospirosis. Trop Med Int Health 2006;11:1699–707.

Haake, Levett. Leptospirosis in humans. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 2015;387:1–33.

Cerqueira G, Picardeau M, A century of leptospira strain typing. Infect Genet Evol 2009;9:760–8.

Rao R, Gupta N, Bhalla P, Agarwal S. Leptospirosis in India and the rest of the world. Braz J Infect Dis 2003;7:178–93.

Loureiro G, Martins S, Lilenbaum W. Laboratorial diagnosis of animal leptospirosis, Diagnóstico laboratorial de leptospirose animal. Revista Brasileira de Ciência Veterinária 2013;20:119–26.

Ohio Department of Health Disease Fact Sheet. Leptospira interrogations; 2005. p. 1–21.

Sritharan M. Insights into leptospirosis, a neglected disease. Department of Animal Sciences. India; 2003. p. 167–92.

Guidelines for the Prevention of Leptospirosis. Communicable Disease Control; 2008. p. 1-12.

Levett P, Haake D. Leptospira Species (Leptospirosis); 1998. p. 1–8.

Shivakumar S, Glasg F. Guidelines for diagnosis of leptospirosis-role of the mat. Govt Stanley Medical College and Hospital Chennai; 2008. p. 1-26.

Kumar S. Indian Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Human Leptospirosis. API India 2012;24–9. Doi:10.13140/2.1.1759.9682.

Niloofa R, Fernando N, de Silva N, Karunanayake L, Wickramasinghe H, Dikmadugoda N, et al. Diagnosis of leptospirosis: comparison between microscopic agglutination test, IgM-ELISA and IgM rapid Immunochromatography test. PLoS One 2015;10:1-12.

Chen H, Zhang Z, Halsey E, Guevara C, Canal E, Hall E, et al. Detection of Leptospira-specific antibodies using a recombinant antigen-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2013;89:1088–94.

Sabir M, Hatta M. Detection of IgM to leptospira agent with ELISA and leptodistick method. Biocelebes 2011;5:8–12.

Sakhaee E, Abdollahpour G, Bolourchi M, Tabatabayi A, Tabrizi S. Serologic and bacteriologic diagnosis of bovine leptospirosis in Tehran suburb dairy farms. Iranian J Veterinary Res 2007;8:325–32.

Desakorn V, Wuthiekanun V, Thanachartwet V, Sahassananda D, Chierakul W, Apiwattanaporn A, et al. Accuracy of a commercial IgM ELISA for the diagnosis of human leptospirosis in Thailand. Am J Trop Med Hyg 2012;86:524–7.

Winslow W, Merry D, Pirc M. Evaluation of a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of immunoglobulin M antibody in the diagnosis of human leptospiral infection. J Clin Microbiol 1997;35:1938–42.

Chirathaworn C, Kaewopas Y, Poovorawan Y, Suwancharoen D. Comparison of a slide agglutination test, LeptoTek Dri-Dot, and IgM-ELISA with microscopic agglutination test for Leptospira antibody detection. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 2007;38:1111–4.

Lilenbaum W, Ristow P, Fráguas S, Da Silva E. Evaluation of a rapid slide agglutination test for the diagnosis of acute canine leptospirosis. Rev Latinoam Microbiol 2002;44:124–8.

Galton R, Powers M, Hall D, Cornell A. A rapid macroscopic-slide screening test for the serodiagnosis of leptospirosis. Am J Vet Res 1958;72:505–12.

Stoenner E, Davis H. Further observations on leptospiral plate antigens. Am J Vet Res 1967;28:259–66.

Brandão A, Camargo E, da Silva E, Silva V, Abrão R. Macroscopic agglutination test for rapid diagnosis of human leptospirosis. J Clin Microbiol 1998;36:3138–42.

Pappas G, Cascio A. Optimal treatment of leptospirosis: queries and projections. Int J Antimicrob Agents 2006;28:491–6.

Edwards C, Levett P. Prevention and treatment of leptospirosis. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther 2004;2:293–8.

Dutta T, Christopher M. Leptospirosis an overview. J Assoc Physicians India 2005;53:545–51.

Spichler A, Moock M, Chapola E, Vinetz J. Weil’s disease: an unusually fulminant presentation characterized by pulmonary hemorrhage and shock. Brazilian J Infect Dis 2005;9:336–40.

Monika J, Nigam R, Reeni M. A review of laboratory techniques for detecting leptospirosis. Int J Curr Pharm Res 2015;7:1-8.

Gonsalez C, Casseb J, Monteiro F, Paula-Neto J, Fernandez R, Silva M, et al. Use of doxycycline for leptospirosis after high-risk exposure in São Paulo, Brazil. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 1998;40:59–61.

Uma K, Mini J, Ganesh A, Kalpan S. In vitro antimicrobial activity of the siddha drugs seenthil sarkarai and nilavembu kudineer against leptospira. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2012;4:76-9.




About this article

Title

A REVIEW OF LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF LEPTOSPIROSIS

Keywords

Leptospirosis, Diagnosis, Treatment, Zoonoses, Tropical diseases, MAT

DOI

10.22159/ijpps.2016v8i12.14688

Date

01-12-2016

Additional Links

Manuscript Submission

Journal

International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
Vol 8, Issue 12, 2016 Page: 7-13

Online ISSN

0975-1491

Statistics

173 Views | 197 Downloads

Authors & Affiliations

Waleed Al-orry
Laboratory of Botany, Mycology and Environment, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Rabat, Morocco
Morocco

Moustapha Arahou
Laboratory of Botany, Mycology and Environment, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Rabat, Morocco
Morocco

Rachida Hassikou
Laboratory of Botany, Mycology and Environment, Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Rabat, Morocco
Morocco

Zakaria Mennane
Department of Medical Bacteriology, National Institute of Hygiene, Ibn Battuta Avenue, B.P. 769, Agdal, Rabat 11000, Morocco
Morocco


Article Tools



Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.