OBESITY: DEVELOPMENT, EPIDEMIOLOGY, FACTORS AFFECTING, QUANTITY, HEALTH HAZARDS, MANAGEMENT AND NATURAL TREATMENT-A REVIEW
Due to the advancement in science, enhanced knowledge on the physiological aspects of almost all the tissues and the organs of the human body is gained. One of the most important prevalent topics needed for discussion is obesity and its effect on the metabolic changes leading to disorders in the human body such as diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases in addition to chronic diseases such as stroke, osteoarthritis, sleep apnea, some cancers, and inflammation-based pathologies. In recent years, obesity is a serious socioeconomic issue, which has become one of the major health problems all over the world, affecting people of all ages, sex, ethnicities and races. Obesity is a complex and multifactorial disease caused by the interaction of a myriad genetics, dietary, lifestyle and environmental factors and it is characterised by an excessive weight for height due to an enlarged fat deposition in the adipose tissue, which is due to a higher calorie intake than the energy expenditure. The pharmaceutical drugs are currently available to treat obesity but generally they have unpleasant side effects. Recent researches demonstrated the potential of natural products to counteract on obesity. Now the novel promising approach is the usage of dietary supplements and plant products and their bioactive compounds that could interfere on pancreatic lipase activity, food intake, lipid metabolism and adipocyte differentiation. In a similar way, hundreds of extracts are currently being isolated from plants, fungi, algae or bacteria and are screened for their potential inhibitions of activity against obesity. Natural products may have a synergistic activity that increases their bioavailability and action on multiple molecular targets.
2. Derdemezis CS, Voulgari PV, Drosos AA, Kiortsis DN. Obesity, adipose tissue and rheumatoid arthritis: coincidence complex relationship? Clin Exp Rheumatol 2011;29:712-27.
3. Kumanyika SK, Obarzanek E, Stettler N, Bell R, Field AE, Fortmann SP, et al. Population-based prevention of obesity: the need for comprehensive promotion of healthful eating, physical activity, and energy balance: a scientific statement from American Heart Association Council on Epidemiology and Prevention, Interdisciplinary Committee for Prevention (formerly the expert panel on population and prevention science). Circulation 2008;118:428-64.
4. World Health Organization. Obesity; 2014. Available from: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs311/en/. [Last accessed on 14 Aug 2016].
5. Withrow D, Alter DA. The economic burden of obesity worldwide: a systematic reviewing of the direct costs of obesity. Obes Rev 2011;12:131-41.
6. Schrauwen P, Westerterp KR. The role of high-fat diets and physical activity in the regulation of body weight. Br J Nutr 2000;84:417-27.
7. Abete I, Astrup A, MartnezJA, Thorsdottir I, Zulet M. Obesity and the metabolic syndrome: the role of different dietary macronutrient distribution patterns and specific nutritional components on weight loss and maintenance. Nutr Rev 2010;68:214-31.
8. Little T, Horowitz M, Feinle-Bisset C. Modulation by high-fat diets of gastrointestinal function and hormones associated with the regulation of energy intake: implications for the pathophysiology of obesity. Am J Clin Nutr 2007;86:531-41.
9. Rubio M, Gargallo M, MillÃ¡n A, Moreno B. Drugs in the treatment of obesity: sibutramine, orlistat and rimonabant. Public Health Nutr 2007;10:1200-5.
10. Moreno D, Ilic N, Poulev A, Brasaemle D, Fried S, Raskin I. Inhibitory effects of grape seed extract on lipases. Nutrition 2003;19:876-79.
11. Yun JW. Possible anti-obesity therapeutics from the nature-a review. Phytochemistry 2010;71:1625-41.
12. Sumantran V. Experimental approaches for studying uptake and action of herbal medicines. Phytother Res 2007;21:210-4.
13. Verma RK, Paraidathathu T. Herbal medicines used in the traditional Indian medicinal system as a therapeutic treatment option for overweight and obesity management: a review. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6:40-7.
14. Naquvi KJ, Ansari SH, Najmi AK. Quality standards of safoof-e-muhazzil, an anti-obesity unani formulation. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2013;5:513-8.
15. Patel R, Patel J, Kakkar S. Formulation and development of anti-obesity liquid formulation containing Garcinia cambogia extract, l-carnitine and chromium picolinate. Indo Global J Pharm Sci 2013;3:40-51.
16. Nazish I, Anasari SH, Arora P. Standardization of polyherbal formulation vyosadiguggulu for obesity. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2012;4:177-80.
17. Chandrasekaran CV, Vijayalakshmi MA, Prakash K, Bansal VS, Meenakshi J, Amit A. Review article: an herbal approach for obesity management. Am J Plant Sci 2012;3:1003-14.
18. Ortinau LC, Nickelson KJ, Stromsdorfer KL, Naik CY, Pickering RT, Haynes RA, Fritsche KL, et al. Sterculic oil, a natural inhibitor of scd1, improves the metabolic state of obese oletf rats. Obesity 2013;21:344-52.
19. Fayeza MD, SathishKumar SN, Kim YJ, Kim SY, Yang DC. Ginsenoside F2 possesses anti-obesity activity via binding with PPARÎ³ and inhibiting adipocyte differentiation in the 3T3-L1 cell line. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem 2015;30:9-14.
20. Fayeza MD, SathishKumar SN, Kim YJ, Kim SY, Yang DC. In silico screening of ginsenoside Rh1 with PPARÎ³ and in vitro analysis on 3T3-L1 cell line. J Mol Simulation 2015;41:1219-26.
21. Park KS. Raspberry ketone, a naturally occurring phenolic compound, inhibits adipogenic and lipogenic gene expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. J Pharm Biol 2015;53:870-5.
22. Athesh K, Divakar M, Brindha P. Anti-obesity potential of Cyperus rotundus L. aqueous tuber extract in rats fed on high-fat cafeteria diet. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2014;7:88-92.
23. Ahmed HH, Hamza AH, Kotob SK. Corn silk offers multimechanistic approaches in mitigating obesity in rodents. Asian J Pharm Clin 2016;9:292-8.
24. Bray G, Ryan D. Drug treatment of the overweight patient. Gastroenterology 2007;132:2239-52.
25. Gonzalez-Castejon M, Rodriguez-Casado A. Dietary phytochemicals and their potential effects on obesity: a review. Pharmacol Res 2011;64:438-55.
26. McClendon K, Riche D, Uwaifo G. Orlistat: current status in clinical therapeutics. Expert Opin Drug Saf 2009;8:727-44.
27. Weibel EK, Hadvary P, Hochuli E, Kupfer E, Lengsfeld H. Lipstatin, an inhibitor of pancreatic lipase, produced by Streptomyces tox tricine I. Producing organism, fermentation, isolation and biological activity. J Antibiot 1987;40:1081-5.
28. Viner RM, Hsia Y, Tomsic T, Wong CK. Efficacy and safety of anti-obesity drugs in children and adolescents: systematic review and meta-analysis. Obes Rev 2010;11:593-602.
29. Heymsfield SB, Segal KR, Hauptman J, Lucas CP, Boldrin MN, Rissanen A. Effects of weight loss with orlistat on glucose tolerance and progression to type 2 diabetes in obese adults. Arch Int Med 2000;160:1321-6.
30. Torgerson J, Hauptman J, Boldrin M, Sjstrm L. Xenical in the prevention of diabetes in obese subjects (XENDOS) study: a randomized study of orlistat as an adjunct to lifestyle changes for the prevention of type 2 diabetes in obese patients. Diabetes Care 2004;27:155-61.
31. Slanc P, Doljak B, Kreft S, Lunder M, Janes D, Strukelj B. Screening of selected food and medicinal plant extracts for pancreatic lipase inhibition. Phytother Res 2009;23:874-7.
32. Slanc P, Doljak B, Mlinaric A, Strukelj B. Screening of wood-damaging fungi and macrofungi for inhibitors of pancreatic lipase. Phytother Res 2004;18:758-62.
33. Bitou N, Ninomiya M, Tsujita T, Okuda H. Screening of lipase inhibitors from marine algae. Lipids 1999;34:441-5.
34. Keith SW, Redden DT, Katzmarzyk PT, Boggiano MM, Hanlon EC, Benca RM, et al. Putative contributors to the secular increase in obesity: exploring the roads less travelled. Int J Obes 2006;30:1585-94.
35. Singh S, Jarial R, Kanwar SS. Therapeutic effect of herbal medicines on obesity: herbal pancreatic lipase inhibitors. Wudpecker J Med Plants 2013;2:53-65.
36. Pollutants linked to reduced height and body mass; 2011. Available from: http://ec.europa.eu.environment/integration/ research/news alert/pdf/232na4. pdf]. [Last accessed on 02 Aug 2016].
37. Verhulst SL, Nelen V, Hond ED, Koppen G, Beunckens C, Vael C, Schoeters G, et al. Intrauterine exposure to environmental pollutants and body mass index during the first 3 Y of life. Environ Health Perspect 2009;117:122-6.
38. Herman CP. Effects of heat on appetite, National Academy Press: Washington DC; 1993.
39. Westerterp-Plantenga MS, Marken-Lichtenbelt WD, Cilissen C, Top S. Energy metabolism in women during short exposure to the thermoneutral zone. Physiol Behav 2002;75:227-35.
40. Flegal KM, TroianoRP, Pamuk ER, Kuczmarski RJ, Campbell SM. The influence of smoking cessation on the prevalence of overweight in the United States. N Engl JMed 1995;333:1165-70.
41. McGovern JA, Benowitz NL. Cigarette smoking, nicotine and body weight. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2011;90:164-8.
42. European commission DG ENV. Pollutants linked to reduced height and body mass; 2011. Available from: http://ec.europa.eu.environment/integration/research/newsalert/pdf/232na4.pdf. [Last accessed on 02 Aug 2016]
43. Ravussin E, Valencia ME, Esparza J, Bennett PH, Schultz LO. Effects of a traditional lifestyle on obesity in Pima Indians. Diabetes Care 1994;17:1067-74.
44. Kawate R, Yamakido M. Nishimoto migrant studies among the Japanese in Hiroshima and Hawaii. Proc 10th Congr Int Diabetes Federation; 1980. p. 526-31.
45. Von Kries R, Toschke AM, Wurmser H, Sauerwald T, Koletzko B. Reduced risk for overweight and obesity in 5-and 6-year old children by duration of sleep: a cross-sectional study. Int J Obesity Related Metab Disorders 2002;26:710-6.
46. Taheri S, Lin L, Austin D, Young T, Mignot E. Short sleep duration is associated with reduced leptin, elevated ghreln, and increased body mass index. PLoS Med Epub 2004;1:210-7.
47. Gangwisch JE, Malaspina D, Boden-Albala B, Heymsfield SB. Inadequate sleep as a risk factor for obesity. Anal NHANES 2005;28:1289-96.
48. O'Rahilly S, Farooqi IS. Genetics of obesity. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2006;361:1095-105.
49. Loos RJ, Bouchard C. FTO: the first gene contributing to common forms of human obesity. Obes Rev 2008;9:246-50.
50. Farooqi IS, Keogh JM, Yeo GSH, Lank EJ, Cheetham T, Oâ€™Rahilly S. Clinical spectrum of obesity and mutations in the melanocortin 4 receptor gene. Engl J Med 2003;348:1085-95.
51. Nothen MM, Cichon S, Hemmer S, Hebebrand J, Remschmidt H, Lehmkuhl G, et al. Human dopamine D4 receptor gene: frequent occurrence of a null allele and observation of homozygosity. Hum Mol Genet 1994;3:2207-12.
52. Ristow M, Muller-Wieland D, Pfeiffer A, Krone W, Kahn CR. Obesity associated with a mutation in a genetic regulator of adipocyte differentiation. N Engl J Med 1998;339:953-9.
53. Campfield LA, Smith FJ, Rosenbaum M, Hirsch J. Human eating: evidence for a physiological basis using a modified paradigm. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 1996;20:133-7.
54. Bouchard C. The biological predisposition to obesity: beyond the thrifty genotype scenario. Int J Obes 2007;31:1337-9.
55. Jensen TK, Andersson AM, Jorgensen N, Andersen AG, Carlsen E, Petersen JH, et al. Body mass index in relation to semen quality and reproductive hormones among 1,558 Danish men. Fertil Steril 2004;82:863-70.
56. Diaz J, Taylor EM. Abnormally high nourishment during sensitive periods results in body weight changes across generations. Obes Res 1998;6:368-74.
57. Weng HH, Bastian LA, Taylor DH, Moser BK, Ostbye T. Number of children associated with obesity in middle-aged women and men: results from the health and retirement study. J Womenâ€™s Health 2004;13:85-91.
58. Bujjirao lG, Ratna Kumar PL. Anti-obese therapeutics from medicinal plants a review. Int J Bioassays 2013;2:1399-406.
59. George P, Nimmi OS. Cent percent safe centum plants for anti-obesity. Int J Innovative Technol Creative Engineering 2011;1:1-19.
60. Strychar I. Diet in the management of weight loss. CMAJ 2006;174:56-62.
61. Ness-Abramof Rl, Apovian CM. Diet modification for treatment and prevention of obesity. Endocrine 2006;29:5-9.
62. Salmon J, Timperio A. Prevalence, trends and environmental influences on child and youth physical activity. Med Sports Sci 2007;50:183-99.
63. RoseÂ´n T, Bosaeus I, Toâ€™lli J, Lindstedt G, Bengtsson BA. Increased body fat mass and decreased extracellular fluid volume in adults with growth hormone deficiency. Clin Endocrinol 1993;38:63-71.
64. Haslam DW, James WP. Obesity. Lancet 2005;366:1197-209.
65. Chiles C, Van Wattum PJ. Psychiatric aspects of the obesity crisis. Psychiatr Times 2010;27:47-51.
66. Brown CD, Higgins M, Donato KA, Rohde FC, Garrison R, Obarzanek E, et al. Body mass index and the prevalence of hypertension and dyslipidemia. Obes Res 2000;8:605-19.
67. Reisin E, Frohlich ED, Messerli FH, Dreslinski GR, Dunn FG, Jones MM, et al. Cardiovascular changes after weight reduction in obesity hypertension. Ann Intern Med 1983;98:315-9.
68. Tuck MI, Sowers J, Dornfield L, Kledzik G, Maxwell M. The effect of weight reduction on blood pressure plasma renin activity and plasma aldosterone level in obese patients. N Engl J Med 1981;304:930-3.
69. Rocchini AP, Key J, Bondie D, Chico R, Moorehead C, Katch V, et al. The effect of weight loss on the sensitivity of blood pressure to sodium in obese adolescents. N Engl J Med 1989;321:580-5.
70. Landsberg L, Krieger DR. Obesity, metabolism and the sympathetic nervous system. Am J Hypertension 1989;2:125-32.
71. Jacobs DB, Sowers JR, Hmeidan A, Niyogi T, Simpson L, Standley PR. Effects of weight reduction on cellular cation metabolism and vascular resistance. Hypertension 1993;21:308-14.
72. Frohlich ED, Apstein C, Chobanian AV, Devereux RB, Dustan HP, Dzau V, et al. The heart in hypertension. N Engl J Med 1992;327:998-1008.
73. Stumvoll M, Goldstein BJ, Van Haeften TW. Type 2 diabetes: pathogenesis and treatment. Lancet 2008;371:2153-6.
74. Boden G, Lebed B, Schatz M, Homko C, Lemieux S. Effects of acute changes of plasma free fatty acids on intramyocellular fat content and insulin resistance in healthy subjects. Diabetes 2001;50:1612-7.
75. Marchesini G, Brizi M, Bianchi G, Tomassetti S, Bugianesi E. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a feature of the metabolic syndrome. Diabetes 2001;50:1844-50.
76. Ravussin E, Smith SR. Increased fat intake, impaired fat oxidation, and failure of fat cell proliferation result in ectopic fat storage, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2002;967:363-78.
77. Haffner SM, Mitchell BD, HazudaHP, Stern MP. Greater influence of the central distribution of adipose tissue on the incidence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes in women than men. Am J Clin Nutr 1991;53:1312-7.
78. Health implications of obesity. National institutes of health consensus development conference statement. Ann Intern Med 1985;103:1073-7.
79. Hubert HB, Feinleib M, McNamara PM, Castelli WP. Obesity as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease: a 26-year follow-up of participants in the Framingham Heart Study. Circulation 1983;67:968-77.
80. Lavie CJ, Milani RV, Ventura HO. Obesity and cardiovascular disease: risk factor, paradox, and impact of weight loss. J Am Coll Cardiol 2009;53:1925-32.
81. Messerli FH, Nunez BD, Ventura HO, Snyder DW. Overweight and sudden death. Increased ventricular ectopy in cardiopathy of obesity. Arch Intern Med 1987;147:1725-28.
82. Lavie CJ, McAuley PA, Church TS, MD Milani RV, Blair SN. Obesity and cardiovascular diseases implications regarding fitness, fatness, and severity in the obesity paradox. J Am College Cardiol 2014;63:1345-54.
83. Poulain M, Doucet M, Major GC, Drapeau V, SeÂ´rie`s F. The effect of obesity on chronic respiratory diseases: pathophysiology and therapeutic strategies. CMAJ 2006;174:1293-9.
84. Donohoe CL, Pidgeon GP, Lysaght J, Reynolds JV. Obesity and gastrointestinal cancer. Br J Surg 2010;97:628-42.
85. Bao B, Wang Z, Li Y, Kong D, Ali S, Banerjee S, et al. The complexities of obesity and diabetes with the development and progression of pancreatic cancer. Biochim Biophys Acta 2011;1815:135-46.
86. Xu Q, Anderson D, Lurie-Beck J. The relationship between abdominal obesity and depression in the general population: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Obes Res Clin Pract 2011;5:267-78.
87. Mazza M, Marano G, Traversi G, Bria P, Mazza S. Primary cerebral blood flow deficiency and Alzheimerâ€™s disease: shadows and lights. J Alzheimer Dis 2011;23:375-89.
88. Thompson WG, Cook DA, Clark MM, Levine JA. Concise review for clinicians. Mayo Clin Proc 2007;82:93-103.
89. Sahib NG, Saari N, Ismail A, Khatib A, Mahomoodally F, Abdul A. Plantsâ€™metabolites as potential anti-obesity agents. Sci World J 2012;1-8. Doi: 10.1100/2012/436039
90. Barsh GS, Farooqi IS, Oâ€™Rahilly S. Genetics of body weight regulation. Nature 2000;404:644-51.
91. Tziomalos K, Krassas GE, Tzotzas T. The use of sibutramine in the management of obesity and related disorders: an update. Vasc Health Risk Manag 2009;5:441-52.
92. Heal DJ, Aspley S, Prow MR, Jackson HC, Martin KF, Cheetham SC. Sibutramine: a novel anti-obesity drug. A review of the pharmacological evidence to differentiate it from d-amphetamine and d-fenfluramine. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1998;22:28-9.
93. Liu YL, Heal DJ, Stock MJ. Mechanism of the thermogenic effect of Metabolite 2(BTS 54 505), a major pharmacologically active metabolite of the novel anti-obesity drug, sibutramine. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2002;26:1245-53.
94. Nisoli E, Carruba MO. An assessment of the safety and efficacy of sibutramine, an anti-obesity drug with a novel mechanism of action. Obes Rev 2000;1:127-39.
95. Arterburn DE, Crane PK, Veenstra DL. The efficacy and safety of sibutramine for weight loss: a systematic review. Arch Int Med 2004;164:994-1003.
96. Fujioka K, Seaton TB, Rowe E, Jelinek CA, Raskin P, Lebovitz HE, et al. Weight loss with sibutramine improves glycaemic control and other metabolic parameters in obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Obes Metab 2000;2:175-87.
97. Meridia (sibutramine hydrochloride). American Society of Health-System Pharmacists; 2012. http://fda.gov/Drugs/ DrugSafety/PostmarketDrugSafetyInformationforPatientsandProviders/ucm191652.htm. [Last accessed on 03 Aug 2016]
98. Ballinger A, Peikin SR. Orlistat: its current status as an anti-obesity drug. Eur J Pharmacol 2002;440:109-17.
99. Neovius M, Johans SK, Rssner S. Head-to-head studies evaluating the efficacy of pharmacotherapy for obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Obes Rev 2008;9:420-7.
100. Torgerson JS. Xenical in the prevention of edicao especial-outubro 2010-ABESO 47-17 diabetes in obese subjects (XENDOS) study: a randomised study of orlistat as an adjunct to lifestyle changes for the prevention of type 2 diabetes in obese patients. Diabetes Care 2004;27:155-61.
101. Van-Gaal L. â€œEfficacy and tolerability of orlistat in the treatment of obesity: a 6-month dose-ranging study. Orlistat Dose-Raging Study Groupâ€. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1998;54:125-32.
102. Kaila B, Raman M. Obesity: a review of pathogenesis and management strategies. Can J Gastroenterol 2008;22:61-8.
103. Lam DD, Przydzial MJ, Ridley SH, Yeo GS, Rochford JJ, Oâ€™Rahilly S, et al. Serotonin 5-HT2C receptor agonist promotes hypophagia via downstream activation of melanocortin 4 receptors. Endocrinology 2008;149:1323-8.
104. Bray GA, Greenway FL. Current and potential drugs for the treatment of obesity. Endocr Rev 1999;20:805-75.
105. Croft H, Houser TL, Jamerson BD, Leadbetter R, Bolden-Watson C, Donahue R, et al. Effect on body weight of bupropin sustained-release in patients with major depression treated for 52 w. Clin Ther 2002;24:662-72.
106. Scheen AJ, Paquot N. Use of cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonists for the treatment of metabolic discords. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2009;23:103-6.
107. Mechanick JI. Metabolic complications of baritic surgery. Proceedings: of the 16th Annual Meeting of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) Seattle; 2007. p. 89-94.
108. Maciejewski ML, Livingston EH, Smith VA, Kavee AL, Kahwati LC, Henderson WG, Arterburn DE. Survival among high-risk patients after bariatric surgery. JAMA 2011;305:2419-26.
109. Singh S, Jarial R, Kanwar SS. Therapeutic effect of herbal medicines on obesity: herbal pancreatic lipase inhibitors. Wudpecker J Med Plants 2013;2:53-65.
110. Park MY, Lee KS, Sung MK. Effects of dietary mulberry, Korean red ginseng, and banaba on glucose homeostasis in relation to PPAR-a, PPAR-c, and LPL mRNA expressions. Life Sci 2005;77:3344-54.
111. Nakayama T, Suzuki S, Kudo H, Sassa S, Nomura M, Sakamoto S. Effects of three Chinese herbal medicines on plasma and liver lipids in mice fed a high fat diet. J Ethnopharmacol 2007;109:236-40.
112. Rayalam S, Della-Fera MA, Baile CA. Phytochemicals and regulation of the adipocyte life cycle. J Nutr Biochem 2008;19:717-26.
113. Williams DJ, Edwards D, HamernigI, Jian I, James AP, Johnson SK, TapsellLC. Vegetables containing phytochemicals with potential anti-obesity properties: a review. Food Res Int 2013;52:323-33.
114. Thielecke F, Boschmann M. The potential role of green tea catechins in the prevention of the metabolic syndrome-a review. Phytochemistry 2009;70:11-24.
115. Wolfram S, Wang Y, Thielecke F. Anti-obesity effects of green tea: from bedside to bench. Mol Nutr Food Res 2006;50:176-87.
116. Birari RB, Bhutani KK. Pancreatic lipase inhibitors from natural sources: unexplored potential. Drug Discovery Today 2007;12:879-89.
117. Sukhdev S, Singh KS. Therapeutic role of phytomedicines on obesity: the importance of herbal pancreatic lipase inhibitors. Int Res J Med Sci 2013;1:15-26.
118. Hadvary P, Lengsfeld H, WolferH. Inhibition of pancreatic lipase in vitro by the covalent inhibitor tetrahydrolipstatin. Biochem J 1998;256:357-61.
119. Hadvary P, Sidler W, Meister W, Vetter, Wolfer H. The lipase inhibitor tetrahydrolipstatin binds covalently to the putative active site serine of pancreatic lipase. J Biol Chem 1991;266:2021-7.
120. Tsujita T, Takaichi H, Takaku T, Aoyama S, Hiraki J. Anti-obesity action of e-polylysine, a potent inhibitor of pancreatic lipase. J Lipid Res 2006;47:1852-8.
121. Karamadoukis L, Shivashankar GH, Ludeman L, Williams AJ. An unusual complication of treatment with orlistat. Clin Nephrol 2009;71:430-2.
122. Thurairajah PH, Syn WK, Neil DA, Stell D, Haydon G. Orlistat (xenical)-induced subacute liver failure. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2005;17:1437-8.
123. Chaput JP, St-Pierre S, Tremblay A. Currently available drugs for the treatment of obesity: sibutramine and orlistat. Mini Rev Med Chem 2007;7:3-10.
124. Yuniarto A, Kurnia I, Ramadhan M. Anti-obesity effect of ethanolic extract of jasmine flowers (Jasminumsambac L.) in high-fat diet induced mice: a potent inhibitor of pancreatic lipase enzyme. Int J Adv Pharm Biol Chem 2015;4:18-22.
125. Ong SL, Paneerchelvan S, Lai HY, Rao NK. In vitro lipase inhibitory effect of thirty-two selected plants in Malaysia. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2014;7:19-24.
126. Adnyana IK, Sukandar EY, Yuniarto A, Finna S. Anti-obesity effect of the pomegranate leaves ethanol extract (punicagranatum L.) In high-fat diet induced mice. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6:626-31.
127. Bujjirao G, Ratnakumar PK, Shaik KB. Evaluation of anti-obesity properties of few south indian medicinal plants by using pancreatic lipase assay. Int J Chem Life Sci 2014;22:34-8.
128. Changhyun R, Uhee J. Screening of crude plant extracts with anti-obesity activity. Int J Mol Sci 2012;13:1710-9.
129. Lee YM, Kim YS, Lee YS, Kim J, Sun HJ, Kim JH, et al. Inhibitory activities of pancreatic lipase and phosphodiesterase from korean medicinal plant extracts. Phytother Res Phytother Res 2012;26:778-82.
130. Bustanji Y, Mohammad M, Hudaib M, Tawaha K, Al-Masri IM, Alkhatib HS, et al. Screening of some medicinal plants for their pancreatic lipase inhibitory potential. Jordan J Pharm Sci 2011;4:81-8.
131. Zheng CD, Duan YQ, Gao JM, Ruan ZG. Screening for anti-lipase properties of 37 traditional chinese medicinal herbs. J Chin Med Assoc 2010;73:319-24.
132. Han LK, Zheng YN, Yoshikawa M, Okuda H, Kimura Y. Anti-obesity effects of chikusetsusaponins isolated from Panax japonicus rhizomes. BMC Complementary Altern Med 2005;5:1472-82.
133. Han LK, Xu BJ, Kimura Y, Zheng Y, Okuda H. Platycodi radix affects lipids metabolism in mice with fat diet-induced obesity. J Nutr 2000;130:2760-4.
134. Kishino E, Ito T, Fujita K, Kiuchi Y. A mixture of the Salacia reticulate (kotala himbutu) aqueous extract, and cyclodextrin reduces the accumulation of visceral fat mass in mice and rats with high-fat-diet-induced obesity. J Nutr 2006;136:433-9.
135. Ono Y, Hattori E, FukayaY, Imai S, Ohizumi Y. Anti-obesity effect of Nelumbo nucifera leaves extract in mice and rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2006;106:238-44.
136. Kim HY, Kang MH. Screening of Korean medicinal plants for lipase inhibitory activity. Phytother Res 2005;19:359-61.
137. Han LK, Nose R, Li W, Gong XJ, Zhen YN, Yoshikawa M, et al. Reduction of fat storage in mice fed a high-fat diet long term by treatment with saponin prepared from kochia scoparia fruit. Phytother Res 2006;20:877-82.
138. Moreno DA, IIic N, Pouley A, Raskin I. Effects of Arachis hypogaea nutshell extract on lipid metabolic enzymes and obesity parameters. Life Sci 2006;78:2797-803.
139. Shimoda H, Seki E, Aitani M. Inhibitory effect of green coffee bean extract on fat accumulation and body weight gain in mice. BMC Complementary Altern Med 2006;6:1-9.
140. Takao I, Fujii S, Ishii A, Han LK, Kumao T, Ozaki K. Effects of mannooligosaccharides from coffee mannan on fat storage in mice fed a high-fat diet. J Health Sci 2006;52:333-7.
141. Han LK, Kimura Y, Okuda H. Anti-obesity effects of natural products. Stud Nat Prod Chem 2005;30:79-110.
142. Bonodiolotti G, Bareggi SR, Frega NG, Strabioli S, Cornelli U. Activity of two diffent poly glucosamines, L112 and FF45, on body weight in male rats. Eur J Pharmacol 2007;567:155-8.
143. Gades MD, Stern JS. Chitosan supplementation and fecal fat excretion in men. Obes Res 2003;11:683-8.
144. Gades MD, Stern JS. Chitosan supplementation and fat absorption in men and women. J Am Diet Assoc 2005;105:72-7.
145. Gallaher DD, Gallaher CM, Mahrt GJ, Carr TP, Hollingshead CH, Hesslink R, et al. A glucomannan and chitosan fiber supplement decreases plasma cholesterol and increases cholesterol excretion in overweight normocholesterolemic humans. J Am Coll Nutr 2002;21:428-33.
146. Han LK, Kimura Y, Okuda H. Reduction in fat storage during chitin-chitosan treatment in mice fed a high-fat diet. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1999;23:174-9.
147. Hayashi K, Ito M. Antidiabetic action of low molecular weight chitosan in genetically obese diabetic KK-Ay mice. Biol Pharm Bull 2002;25:188-92.
148. Ho SC, Tai ES, Eng PH, Tan CE, Fok AC. In the absence of dietary surveillance, chitosan does not reduce plasma lipids or obesity in hypercholesterolaemic obese Asian subjects. Singapore Med J 2001;42:6-10.
149. Kaats GR, Michalek JE, Preuss HG. Evaluating efficacy of a chitosan product using a double-blinded, placebo-controlled protocol. J Am Coll Nutr 2006;25:389-94.
150. Sumiyoshi M, Kimura Y. Low molecular weight chitosan inhibits obesity induced by feeding a high-fat diet long-term in mice. J Pharm Pharmacol 2006;58:201-7.
151. Weibel EK, Hadvary P, Hochuli E, Kupfer E, Lengsfeld H. Lipstatin, an inhibitor of pancreatic lipase, produced by Streptomyces toxytricini. I. Producing organism, fermentation, isolation and biological activity. J Antibiot (Tokyo) 1987;40:1081-5.
152. Mutoh M, Nakada N, Matsukuma S, Ohshima S, Yoshinari K, Watanabe J, et al. Panclicins, novel pancreatic lipase inhibitors. I. Taxonomy, fermentation, isolation and biological activity. J Antibiot (Tokyo) 1994;47:1369-75.
153. Kitahara M, Asano M, Naganawa H, Maeda K, Hamada M, Aoyagi T, et al. Valilactone. An inhibitor of esterase produced by actinomycetes. J Actinomycetes J Antibiot (Tokyo) 1987;40:1647-50.
154. Umezawa H, Aoyagi T, Uotani K, Hamada M, Takeuchi T, Takahashi S. Ebelactone, an inhibitor of esterase, produced by actinomycetes. J Antibiot (Tokyo) 1980;33:1594-6.
155. Umezawa H, Aoyagi T, Hazato T, Uotani K, Kojima F, Hamada M, et al. An inhibitor of esterase, produced by actinomycetes. J Antibiot (Tokyo) 1978;31:639-41.
156. Tomoda H, Namatame I, Omura S. Microbial metabolites with inhibitory activity against lipid metabolism. Proc Japan Acad 2002;78:217-40.
157. Liu DZ, Wang F, Liao TG, Tang JG, Steglich W, Zhu HJ, et al. Vibralactone: a lipase inhibitor with an unusal fused bÃªte-lactone produced by cultures of the basidiomycete Boreostereum vibrans. Org Lett 2006;8:5749-52.
158. Bitou N, Ninomiya M, Tsujita T, Okuda H. Screening of lipase inhibitors from marine algae. Lipids 1999;34:441-5.
159. Ahn MY, Jee SD, Lee BM. Anti-obesity effects of Isaria sinclairii by repeated oral treatment in obese zucker rats over a 4-mouth period. J Toxicol Environ Health 2007;70:1395-401.
160. Slanc P, Doljak B, Mlinaric A, Strukelj B. Screening of wood-damaging fungi and macrofungi for inhibitors of pancreatic lipase. Phytother Res 2004;18:758-62.
161. Lin JK, Lin-Shiau SY. Mechanisms of hypolipidemic and anti-obesity effects of tea and tea polyphenols. Mol Nutr Food Res 2006;50:211-7.
162. Nakai M, Fukui Y, Asami S, Toyoda-Ono Y, Iwashita T, Shibata H, et al. Inhibitory effects of oolong tea polyphenols on pancreatic lipase in vitro. J Agric Food Chem 2005;53:4593-8.
163. Han LK, Takaku T, Li J, Kimura Y, Okuda H. Anti-obesity action of oolong tea. Int J Obesity Related Metab Disorders 1999;23:98-105.
164. Zhao HL, Sim JS, Shim SH, Ha YW, Kang SS, Kim YS. Antiobese and hypolipidemic effects of platycodin saponins in diet-induced obese rats: evidence for lipase inhibition and calorie intake restriction. Int J Obes 2005;29:983-90.
165. Zhao HL, Kim YS. Determination of the kinetic properties of platycodin for the inhibition of pancreatic lipase using a 1,2-diglyceride-based colorimetric assay. Arch Pharm Res 2004;27:968-72.
166. Han LK, Zheng YN, XuBj, Okuda H, Kimura Y. Saponins from platycodi radix ameliorate high fat diet-induced obesity in mice. J Nutr 2002;132:2241-5.
167. Xu BJ, Han LK, Zheng YN, Lee JH, Sung CK. In vitro inhibitory effect of triterpenoidal saponins from Platycodi radix on pancreatic lipase. Arch Pharm Res 2005;28:180-5.
168. Lei F, Zhang XN, Wang W, Xing DM, Xie WD, Su H, et al. Evidence of anti-obesity effects of the pomegranate leaf extract in high-fat diet induced obese mice. Int J Obes 2007;31:1023-9.
169. Yamamoto M, Shimura S, Itoh Y, Ohsaka T, Egawa M, Inoue S. Anti-obesity effects of lipase inhibitor CT-II, an extract from edible herbs, nomame herba, on rats fed a high-fat diet. Int J Obesity Related Metab Disorders 2000;24:758-64.
170. Ekanem AP, Wang M, Simon JE, Moreno DA. Antiobesity properties of two African plants (Afromomum meleguetta and Spilanthes acmella) by pancreatic lipase inhibition. Phytother Res 2007;21:1253-5.
171. Han LK, Kimura Y, Kawashima M, Takaku T, Taniyama T, Hayashi T, et al. Anti-obesity effects in rodents of dietary teasaponin, a lipase inhibitor. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2001;25:1459-64.
172. Handa T, Sono YY, Yazawa K. Effects of fenugreek seed extract in obese mice fed a high-fat diet. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2005;69:1186-8.
173. Han LK, Sumiyoshi M, Zhang J, Liu MX, Zhang YN, Okuda H, et al. Anti-obesity action by polyphenols of Salix matsudana in high-fat-diet treated rodent animals. Phytother Res 2003;17:1188-94.
174. Han LK, Sumiyoshi M, Zhang YN, Okuda H, Kimura Y. Isolation of anti-obesity effectors from polyphenol fraction of Salix matsudana. Phytother Res 2003;17:1195-8.
175. Sharma N, Sharma VK, Seo SY. Screening of some medicinal plants for anti-lipase activity. J Ethnopharmacol 2005;97:453-6.
176. Ninomiya K, Matsuda H, Shimoda H, Nishida N, Kasajima N, Yoshino T, et al. Carnosic acid, a new class of lipid absorption inhibitor from sage. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2004;14:1943-6.
177. Zheng Q, Koike K, Han LK, Okuda H, Nikaido T. New biologically active triterpenoid saponins from Scabiosa tschiliensis. J Nat Prod 2004;67:604-13.
178. Yoshizumi K, Hirano K, Ando H, Hirai Y, Ida Y, Tsuji T, et al. Lupane-type saponins from leaves of Acanthopanax sessiliflorus and their inhibitory activity on pancreatic lipase. J Agric Food Chem 2006;54:335-41.
179. Kimura H, Ogawa S, Jisaka M, Kimura Y, Katsube T, Yokota K. Identification of novel saponins from edible seeds of Japanese horse chestnut (Aesculus turbinate Blume) after treatment with wooden ashes and their nutraceutical activity. J Pharm Biomed Anal 2006;41:1657-65.
180. Kurihara H, Asami S, Shibata H, Fukami H, Tanaka T. Hypolipemic effect of Cyclocarya paliurus (batal) iljinskaja in lipid-loaded mice. Biol Pharm Bull 2003;26:383-5.
181. Deshpande MS, Shengule S, Apte KG, Wani M, Piprode V, Parab PB. Anti-Obesity Activity Of Ziziphus Mauritiana: A Potent Pancreatic Lipase Inhibitor. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2003;6:168-73.
182. Lee IA, Lee JH, Baek NI, Kim DH. Antihyperlipidemic effect of crocin isolated from the fructus of Gardenia jasminoides and its metabolite Crocetin. Biol Pharm Bull 2005;28:2106-10.
183. Sheng L, Qian Z, Zheng S, Xi L. Mechanism of hypolipidemic effect of crocin in rats: crocin inhibits pancreatic lipase. Eur J Pharmacol 2006;543:116-22.
184. Kwon CS, Sohn HY, Kim SH, Kim JH, Son KH, Lee JS, et al. Anti-obesity effect of Dioscorea nipponica makino with lipase inhibitory activity in rodents. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2003;67:1451-6.
185. Won SR, Kim SK, Kim YM, Lee PH, Ryu JH, Kim JW, et al. Licochalcone A: lipase inhibitor from the roots of Glycyrrhiza uralensis. Food Res Int 2007;40:1046-50.
186. Kannan M, Dheeba B, Nageshwari K, Kannan K, Venkatesan S. Antibacterial and anti-obesity activities of marine algae Gracilaria corticata and Spirulina platensis. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6:420-4.
187. Slanc P, Doljak B, Mlinaric A, Strukelj B. Screening of wood-damaging fungi and macrofungi for inhibitors of pancreatic lipase. Phytother Res 2004;18:758-62.
188. Kawaguchi K, Mizuno T, Aida K, Uchino K. Hesperidin as an inhibitor of lipase from porcine pancreas and pseudomonas. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 1997;61:102-4.
189. Lean ME. How does sibutramine work? Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2001;4:8-11.
190. Poston WS, Foreyt JP. Sibutramine and the management of obesity. Expert Opin Pharmacother 2004;5:633-42.
191. Chantre P, Lairon D. Recent findings of green tea extract AR25 (exolise) and its activity for the treatment of obesity. Phytomedicine 2002;9:3-8.
192. Halford JC, Blundell JE. Pharmacology of appetite suppression. Prog Drug Res 2000;54:25-58.
193. Wynne K, Stanley S, McGowan BB. Appetite control. J Endocrinol 2005;184:291-318.
194. Van Heerden FR. Hoodia gordonii: a natural appetite suppressant. J Ethnopharmacol 2008;119:434-7.
195. Ohia SE, Opere CA, Leday AM, Bagch M, Bagchi D, Stohs SJ. Safety and mechanism of appetite suppression by a novel hydroxy citric acid extract (HCA-SX). Mol Cell Biochem 2002;238:89-103.
196. Lane D, Cha SH. Effect of glucose and fructose on food intake via malonyl-CoA signalling in the Brain. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2009;382:1-5.
197. Cha SH, Wolfgang M, Tokutake Y, Chohnan S, Lane MD. Differential effects of central fructose and glucose on hypothalamic malonyl-CoA and food intake. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2008;105:16871-5.
198. Ambadasu B, Dange SV, Wali RS. Effect of Caralluma fimbriata extract on appetite, body weight and lipid profile in cafeteria diet-induced obesity in rats. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2013;5:536-9.
199. Kim JH, Hahm DH, Yang DC, Kim JH, Lee HJ, Shim I. Effect of crude saponin of Korean red ginseng on high-fat-diet-induced obesity in the rat. J Pharmacol Sci 2005;97:124-31.
200. Mopuri R, Ganjayi M, Banavathy KS, Parim BN, Meriga B. Evaluation of anti-obesity activities of ethanolic extract of Terminalia paniculata bark on high fat diet-induced obese rats. BMC Complementary Altern Med 2015;15:2-11.
201. Prashar Y, Kumar AS. Anti-obesity activity of Bauhinia variegata Linn. in high-fat diet-induced obesity in female rats. Pharmacologyonline 2010;2:1008-16.
202. Kim YJ, Shin YO, Ha YW, Lee S, Oh JK, Kim YS. Anti-obesity effect of Pinellia ternata extract in zucker rats. Biol Pharm Bull 2006;29:1278-81.
203. Saito M, Ueno M, Ogino S, Kubo K, Nagata J, Takeuchi M. High dose of Garcinia cambogia is effective in suppressing fat accumulation in developing male Zucker obese rats, but highly toxic to the testis. Food Chem Toxicol 2005;43:411-9.
204. Moon HS, Lee HG, Choi YJ, Kim TG, Cho CS. Proposed mechanisms of (_) epigallocatechin-3-gallate for anti-obesity. Chem Biol Interact 2007;167:85-98.
205. MacLean DB, Luo LG. Increased ATP content/production in the hypothalamus may be a signal for energy-sensing of satiety: studies of the anorectic mechanism of a plant steroidal glycoside. Brain Res 2004;1020:1-11.
206. Pereira CA, Pereira LLS, Correa AD. Hoodia gordonii in the treatment of obesity: a review. J Med Plants Res 2010;4:2305-12.
207. Baintner K, Kiss P, PfuÂ¨ ller U, Bardocz S, Pusztai A. Effect of orally and intraperitoneally administered plant lectins on food consumption of rats. Acta Physiol Hung 2003;90:97-107.
208. Hughes GM, Boyland EJ, Williams NJ, Mennen L, Scott C, Kirkham TC, et al. The effect of Korean pine nut oil (PinnoThin) on food intake, feeding behaviour and appetite: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Lipids Health Dis 2008;7:1-10.
209. Fleming RM. The effect of ephedra and high-fat dieting: a cause for concern! A case report. Angiology 2007;58:102-5.
210. Klontz KC, Timbo BB, Street D. Consumption of dietary supplements containing Citrus aurantium (bitter orange)-2004 california behavioral risk factor surveillance survey (BRFSS). Ann Pharmacother 2006;40:1747-51.
211. Husain GM, Chatterjee SS, Singh PN, Kumar V. Hypolipidemic and anti-obesity-like activity of standardised extract of Hypericum perforatum L. in rats. Int Scholarly Res Network Pharmacol 2011;1-7. http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2011/505247
212. Ohkoshi E, Miyazaki H, Shindo K, Watanabe H, Yoshida A, Yajima H. Constituents from the leaves of Nelumbo nucifera stimulate lipolysis in the white adipose tissue of mice. Planta Med 2007;73:1255-9.
213. Attele AS, Zhou YP, Xie JT, Wu JA, Zhang L, Pugh W, et al. Antidiabetic effects of panax ginseng berry extract and the of an effective component. Diabetes 2002;51:1851-8.
214. Moriyama T, Kishimoto K, Nagai K, Urade R, Ogawa T, Utsumi S, et al. Soybean Î²-conglycinin diet suppresses serum triglyceride levels in normal and genetically obese mice by induction of Î²-oxidation, downregulation of fatty acid synthase, and inhibition of triglyceride absorption. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2004;68:352-9.
215. Ishihar K, Oyaizu S, Fukuchi Y, Mizunoya W, Segawa K, Takahashi M, et al. A soybean peptide isolate diet promotes postprandial carbohydrate oxidation and energy expenditure in typeâ€“II diabetic mice. J Nutr 2003;133:752-7.
216. Maeda H, Hosokawa M, Sashima T, Funayama K, Miyashita K. Fucoxanthin from edible seaweed, Undaria pinnatifida, shows anti-obesity effects through UCP1 expression in white adipose tissues. Bioche Biophys Res Commun 2005;332:392-7.
217. Maeda H, Hosokawa M, Sashima T, Funayama K, Miyashita K. Effect of medium-chain triacylglycerols on anti-obesity effects of fucoxanthin. J Oleo 2007;56:615-21.
218. Maeda H, Hosokawa M, Sashima T, Miyashita K. Dietary combination of fucoxanthin and fish oil attenuates the weight gain of white adipose tissue and decreases blood glucose in obese/diabetic KK-Ay mice. J Agric Food Chem 2007;55:7701-6.
219. Tsuboyama-Kasaoka N, Takahashi M, Kim H, Ezaki O. Up-regulation of liver uncoupling protein-2 mRNA by either fish oil feeding or fibrate administration in mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1999;257:879-85.
220. Ortinau LC, Nickelson KJ, Stromsdorfer KL, Naik CY, Pickering RT, Haynes RA, et al. Sterculic oil, a natural inhibitor of scd1, improves the metabolic state of obese oletf rats. Obesity 2013;21:344-52.
221. Flatt JP. Differences in basal energy expenditure and obesity. Obesity (Silver Spring) 2007;15:2546-8.
222. Redinger RN. Fat storage and the biology of energy expenditure. Transl Res 2009;154:52-60.
223. Cannon B, Nedergaad J. Brown adipose tissue: function and physiological significance. Physiol Rev 2004;84:277-359.
224. Kumar MV, Sunvold GD, Scarpace PJ. Dietary vitamin a supplementation in rats: suppression of leptin and induction of UCP1 mRNA. J Lipid Res 1999;40:824-9.
225. Yoon SS, Rhee YH, Lee HJ, Lee EO, Lee MH, Ahn KS, et al. Uncoupled protein 3 and p38 signal pathways are involved in the anti-obesity activity of Solanum tuberosum L. Cv. Bora Valley. J Ethnopharmacol 2008;118:396-404.
226. Kim HK, Della-Fera M, Lin J, Baile CA. Docosahexaenoic acid inhibits adipocyte differentiation and induces apoptosis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. J Nutr 2006;136:2965-9.
227. Cowherd RM, Lyle RE, McGehee RE Jr. Molecular regulation of adipocyte differentiation. Semin Cell Dev Biol 1999;10:3-10.
228. Green H, Kehinde O. An established a preadipose cell line and its differentiation in culture. II. Factors affecting the adipose conversion. Cell 1975;5:19-27.
229. Wu Z, Puigserver P, Spiegelman BM. Transcriptional activation of adipogenesis. Curr Opin Cell Biol 1999;11:689-94.
230. Lefterova MI, Lazarus MA. New developments in adipogenesis. Trends Endocrinol Metab 2009;20:107-14.
231. Awad AB, Begdache LA, Fink CS. Effect of sterols and fatty acids on growth and triglyceride accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. J Nutr Biochem 2000;11:153-8.
232. Evans M, Geigerman C, Cook J, Kuebler B, McIntosh M. Conjugated linoleic acid suppresses triglyceride accumulation and induces apoptosis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Lipids 2000;35:899-910.
233. Okuno M, Kajiwara K, Imai S, Kobayashi T, Honma N, Maki T, et al. Perilla oil prevents the excessive growth of visceral adipose tissue in rats by down-regulating adipocyte differentiation. J Nutr 1997;127:1752-7.
234. Madsen L, Petersen RK, Kristiansen K. Regulation of adipocyte differentiation and function by polyunsaturated fatty acids. Biochem Biophys Acta 2005;1740:266-86.
235. Shimada T, Hiramatsu N, Kasai A, Mukai M, Okamura M, Yao J, et al. Suppression of adipocyte differentiation by Cordyceps militaris through activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2008;295:859-67.
236. Kim MS, Kim JK, Kwon DY, Park R. Anti-adipogenic effects of Garcinia extract on the lipid droplet accumulation and the expression of a transcription factor. Biofactors 2004;22:193-6.
237. Garg A, Singh R. Anti-obesity activity of ethanolic extract of Cassia auriculata in high-fat-diet-induced obese rats. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2015;7:237-43.
238. Jeon JR, Kim JY. Effects of pine needle extract on the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and obesity in high-fat diet fed rats. Biol Pharm Bull 2006;29:2111-5.
239. Lee YS, Kim WS, Kim KH, Yoon MJ, Cho HJ, Shen Y, et al. Berberine, a natural plant product, activates AMP-activated protein kinase with beneficial metabolic effects in diabetic and insulin-resistant states. Diabetes 2006;55:2256-64.
240. Huang C, Zhang Y, Gong Z, Sheng X, Li Z, Zhang W, et al. Berberine inhibits 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation through the PPARgamma pathway. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2006;348:571-8.
241. Hu Y, Davies GE. Berberine increases expression of GATA-2 and GATA-3 during inhibition of adipocytes differentiation. Phytomedicine 2009;16:864-73.
242. Hsu CL, Yen GC. Effects of capsaicin on induction of apoptosis and inhibition of adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. J Agric Food Chem 2007;55:1730-6.
243. Liu F, Kim J, Li Y, Liu X, Li J, Chen X. An extract of Lagerstroemia speciosa L. has insulin-like glucose uptake-stimulatory and adipocyte differentiation-inhibitory activities in 3T3-L1 cells. J Nutr 2001;131:2242-7.
244. Liu X, Kim JK, Li Y, Li J, Liu F, Chen X. Tannic acid stimulates glucose transport and inhibits adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. J Nutr 2005;135:165-71.
245. Bai N, He K, Roller M, Zheng B, Chen X, Shao Z, et al. Active compounds from Lagerstroemia speciosa, insulin-like glucose uptake stimulatory/inhibitory and adipocyte differentiation-inhibitory activities in 3T3-L1 cells. J Agric Food Chem 2008;56:11668-74.
246. Klein G, Kim J, Himmeldirk K, Cao Y, Chen X. Antidiabetes and anti-obesity activity of Lagerstroemia speciosa. Evid Based Complement Altern Med 2007;4:401-7.
247. Maeda H, Hosokawa M, Sashima T, Takahashi N, Kawada T, Miyashita K. Fucoxanthin and its metabolite, fucoxanthinol, suppress adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. Int Mol Med 2006;18:147-52.
248. Ku HC, Chang HH, Liu HC, Hsiao CH, Lee MJ, Hu YJ, et al. Green tea (-)-epigallocatechin gallate inhibits insulin stimulation of 3T3-L1 preadipocyte mitogenesis via the 67-kDa laminin receptor pathway. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2009;297:121-32.
249. Lee MS, Kim CT, Kim IH, Kim Y. Inhibitory effects of green tea catechin on the lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Phytother Res 2008;23:1088-91.
250. Sakurai N, Mochizuki K, Kameji H, Shimada M, Goda T. (_)Epigallocatechin gallate enhances the expression of genes related to insulin sensitivity and adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes at an early stage of differentiation. Nutrition 2009;25:1047-56.
251. Lee YK, Lee WS, Hwang JT, Kwon DY, Surh YJ, Park OJ. Curcumin exerts antidifferentiation effect through AMPKa-PPAR-c in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and antiproliferative effect through AMPKa-COX-2 in cancer cells. J Agric Food Chem 2009;57:305-10.
252. Kubota H, Morii R, Kojima-Yuasa A, Huang X, Yano Y, Matsui-Yuasa I. Effect of Zizyphus jujuba extract on the inhibition of adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Am J Chin Med 2009;37:597-608.
253. Ambati S, Yang JY, Rayalam S, Park HJ, Della-Fera MA, Baile CA. Ajoeneexerts potent effects in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by inhibiting adipogenesis and inducing apoptosis. Phytother Res 2009;23:513-8.
254. Yang JY, Della-Fera MA, Rayalam S, Baile CA. Effect of xanthohumol and isoxanthohumol on 3T3-L1 cell apoptosis and adipogenesis. Apoptosis 2007;12:1953-63.
255. Mendes V, Monterio R, Pestana D, Teixeira D, Calhau C, Azevado I. Xanthohumol influences preadipocyte differentiation: implication of antiproliferative and apoptotic effects. J Agric Food Chem 2008;56:11631-7.
256. Uto-Kondo H, Ohmori R, Kiyose C, Kishimoto Y, Saito H, Igarashi O, et al. Tocotrienol suppresses adipocyte differentiation and Akt phosphorylation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. J Nutr 2009;139:51-7.
257. Yamasaki M, Ogawa T, Wang L, Katsube T, Yamasaki Y, Sun X, et al. Anti-obesity effects of hot water extract from Wasabi (Wasabia japonica Matsum.) leaves in mice fed high-fat diets. Nutr Res Pract 2013;7:267-72.
258. Ito M, Ito J, Kitazawa H, Shimamura K, Fukami T, Tokita S, et al. Daisuke uemura (_) ternatin inhibits adipogenesis and lipid metabolism in 3T3-L1 cells. Peptides 2009;30:1074-81.
259. Xiong ZD, Li PG, Mu TH. The differentiation and proliferation inhibitory effects of sporamin from sweet potato in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Agric Sci Chin 2009;8:671-7.
260. Takahashi T, Tabuchi T, Tamaki Y, Kosaka K, Takikawa Y, Satoh T. Carnosic acid and carnosol inhibit adipocyte differentiation in mouse 3T3-L1 cells through induction of phase2 enzymes and activation of glutathione metabolism. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2009;382:549-54.
261. Ejaz A, Wu D, Kwan P, Meydani M. Curcumin inhibits adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and angiogenesis and obesity in C57/BL mine. J Nutr 2009;139:919-25.
262. Miller M, Chen S, Woodliff J, Kansra S. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) inhibits cell proliferation, induces apoptosis, and decreases hormone levels and secretion in pituitary tumor cells. Endocrinology 2008;149:4158-67.
263. Wang SL, Li Y, Wen Y, Chen YF, Na LX, Li ST, et al. Curcumin, a potential inhibitor of up-regulation of TNF-alpha and IL-6 induced by palmitate in 3T3-L1 adipocytes through NF-kappaB and JNK pathway. Biomed Environ Sci 2009;22:32-9.
264. Tominaga S, Sugahara T, Nishimoto S, Yamawaki M, Nakashima Y, Kishida T, et al. The effect of Seco iso lariciresinol on 3T3-L1 adipocytes and the relationship between molecular structure and activity. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2009;73:35-9.
265. Kim MS, Kim JK, Kim HJ, Moon SR, Shin BC, Park KW, et al. Hibiscus extract inhibits the lipid droplet accumulation and adipogenic transcription factors expression of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. J Alternative Complementary Med 2003;9:499-504.
266. Hwang JT, Park IJ, Shin JI, Lee SK, Baik HW, Ha J, et al. Genistein, EGCG, and capsaicin inhibit adipocyte differentiation process via activating AMP-activated protein kinase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2005;338:694-9.
267. Okada T, Nakai M, Maeda H, Hosokawa M, Sashima T, Miyashita K. Suppressive effect of neoxanthin on the differentiation of 3T3-L1 adipose cells. J Oleo Sci 2008;57:345-51.
268. Yang JY, Della-Fera MA, Baile CA. Guggulsterone inhibits adipocyte differentiation and induces apoptosis in 3T3-L1 cells. Obesity 2008;16:16-22.
269. Jiang L, Zhang NX, Mo W, Wan R, Ma CG, Li X, et al. Rehmannia inhibits adipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2008;371:185-90.
270. Zong W, Zhao G. Corosolic acid isolation from the leaves of Eriobotrtajaponica showing the effects on carbohydrate metabolism and differentiation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2007;16:346-52.
271. Oben JE, Ngondi JL, Blum K. Inhibition of Irvingia gabonensis seed extract (OB131) on adipogenesis as mediated via down regulation of the PPAR gamma and leptin genes and up-regulation of the adiponectin gene. Lipids Health Dis 2008;7:1-6.
272. Langin D. Adipose tissue lipolysis as a metabolic pathway to define pharmacological strategies aginst obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Pharmacol Res 2006;53:482-91.
273. Rong X, Kim MS, Su N, Wen S, Matsuo Y, Yamahara J, et al. An aqueous extract of Salacia oblonga root, a herb-derived peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha activator, by oral gavage over 28 d induces gender-dependent hepatic hypertrophy in rats. Food Chem Toxicol 2008;46:2165-72.
274. Huang TH, Peng G, Li GQ, Yamahara J, Roufogalis BD, Li Y. Salacia oblonga root improves postprandial hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis in zucker diabetic fatty rats: activation of PPAR-a. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2006;210:225-35.
275. Pang J, Choi Y, Park T. Ilex paraguariensis extract ameliorates obesity induced by high-fat diet: potential role of AMPK in the visceral adipose tissue. Arch Biochem Biophys 2008;476:178-85.
276. Lee J, Chae K, Ha J, Park BY, Lee HS, Jeong S, et al. Regulation of obesity and lipid disorders by herbal extracts from Morus alba, Melissa officinalis, and Artemisia capillaries in high-fat-diet-induced obese mice. J Ethnopharmacol 2008;115:263-70.
277. Lee JS, Lee MK, Ha TY, Bok SH, Park HM, Jeong KS, et al. Supplementation of whole persimmon leaf improves lipid profiles and suppresses body weight gain in rats fed high-fat diet. Food Chem Toxicol 2006;44:1875-83.
278. Weisberg SP, Leibel R, Tortoriello DV. Dietary curcumin significantly improves obesity-associated inflammation and diabetes in mouse models of diabesity. Endocrinology 2008;149:3549-58.
279. Manjunatha H, Srinivasan K. Hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of curcumin and capsaicin in high-fat-fed rats. Can J Physiol Pharmacol 2007;85:588-96.
280. Asai A, Miyazawa T. Dietary curcuminoids prevent high-fat-diet-induced lipid accumulation in rat liver and epididymal adipose tissue. J Nutr 2001;131:2932-5.
281. Park SA, Choi MS, Kim MJ, Jung UJ, Kim HJ, Park KK, et al. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic action of Du-zhong (Eucommia ulmoides Oliver) leaves water extract in C57BL/KsJ-db/db mice. J Ethnopharmacol 2006;107:412-7.
282. Kim SO, Yun SJ, Jung B, Lee EH, Hahm DH, Shim I, et al. Hypolipidemic effects of curde extract of adlay seed (Coix lachrymajobi var Mayuen) in obesity rat fed high-fat diet: relations of TNF-Î± and leptin mRNA expressions and serum lipid levels. Life Sci 2004;75:1391-404.
283. Yoshikawa M, Shimoda H, Nishida N, Takada M, Matsuda H. Salacia reticulata and its polyphenolic constituents with lipase inhibitory and lipolytic activities have mild anti-obesity effects in rats. J Nutr 2002;132:1819-24.
284. Nakagawa K, Kishida H, Arai N, Nishiyama T, Mae T. Licorice flavonoids suppress abdominal fat accumulation and increase in blood glucose level in obese diabetic KK-Ay mice. Biol Pharm Bull 2004;27:1775-8.
285. Mae T, Kishida H, Nishiyama T, Tsukagawa M, Konishi E, Kuroda M, et al. A licorice ethanolic extract with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-c ligand-binding activity affects diabetes in KK-Ay mice, abdominal obesity in diet-induced obese C57BL mice and hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive Rats. J Nutr 2003;133:3369-77.
286. Kobayashi Y, Nakano Y, Kizaki M, Hoshikuma K, Yokoo Y, Kamiya T. Capsaicin-like anti-obese activities of evodiamine from fruits of Evodia rutaecarpa, a vanilloid receptor agonist. Planta Med 2000;67:628-33.
287. Kim HJ, Bae IY, Ahn CW, Lee HG. Purification and identification of adipogenesis inhibitory peptide from black soybean protein hydrolysate. Peptides 2007;28:2098-103.
288. Yang JY, Lee SJ, Park HW, Cha YS. Effect of genistein with carnitine administration on lipid parameters and obesity in C57Bl/6J mice fed a high-fat diet. J Med Food 2006;9:459-67.
289. Morimoto C, Satoh Y, Hara M, Inoue S, Tsujita T, Okuda H. Anti-obese action of raspberry ketone. Life Sci 2005;77:194-204.
290. Roffey BW, Atwal AS, Johns T, Kubow S. Water extracts from Momordica charantia increase glucose uptake and adiponectin secretion in 3T3-L1 adipose cells. J Ethnopharmacol 2007;112:77-84.
291. Hsu HK, Yang YC, Hwang JH, Hong SJ. Effects of Toona sinensis leaf extract on lipolysis in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Kaohsiung J Med Sci 2003;19:385-9.
292. Sheng X, Zhang Y, Gong Z, Huang C, Zang YQ. Improved insulin resistance and lipid metabolism by cinnamon extract through activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. PPAR Res 2008:1-9. Doi:10.1155/2008/581348