EVALUATION OF ANTI-OBESITY EFFECT OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF MUCUNA PRURIENS SEEDS ON RATS
Objective: Evaluation of the anti-obesity effect of aqueous extract of Mucuna pruriens seeds on rats.
Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were subjected to high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 wk. L-DOPA (12.5 mg/kg, p. o.) as standard drug and aqueous extract of Mucuna pruriens (AEMP) seeds (200 mg/kg, p. o. and 400 mg/kg, p. o.) as test drugs were administered in last 4 wk along with HFD. Body weight, food intake, body mass index (BMI), serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels were measured at the end of fourth, eighth and twelfth wk, while white adipose tissue (WAT) mass and brain dopamine levels were measured at the end of the twelfth wk.
Results: AEMP (200 mg/kg, p. o.) and (400 mg/kg, p. o.) treated groups showed a significant decrease in food intake and weight gain without altering BMI. Moreover, TG levels were lower in treated groups as compared to the HFD group, but no significant changes were observed in TC and HDL levels. L-DOPA-treated group showed a significant decrease in body weight, food intake, BMI and WAT. Both AEMP and L-DOPA-treated groups showed an increase in brain dopamine levels as compared to disease control group (p<0.05).
Conclusion: L-DOPA and AEMP showed anti-obesity activity by reducing body weight gains, food intake and WAT weights; modulating TG with increased brain dopamine level which correlates to the inhibitory action of dopamine on reward mechanism.Â
2. Yanovski SZ, Yanovski JA. Long-term drug treatment for obesity: a systematic and clinical review. JAMA 2014;311:74-86.
3. Gandhi M, Swaminathan S. Ghrelin and obesity an update. Int J Pharm Clin Res 2014;6:284-7.
4. Schwartz MW, Woods SC, Porte JR, Seeley RJ, Baskin DG. Central nervous system control of food intake. Nature 2000;404:661-71.
5. Martel P, Fantino M. Mesolimbic dopaminergic system activity as a function of food reward: a microdialysis study. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1996;53:221-6.
6. Balcioglu A, Wurtman RJ. Effects of phentermine on striatal dopamine and serotonin release in conscious rats: in vivo microdialysis study. Int J Obesity Related Metab Disorders 1998;22:325-8.
7. Baptista T. Body weight gain induced by antipsychotic drugs: mechanisms and management. Acta Psychiatr Scand 1999; 100:3-16.
8. Wetterling T. Bodyweight gain with atypical antipsychotics. A comparative review. Drug Saf 2001;24:59-73.
9. Towell A, Muscat R, Willner P. Behavioural microanalysis of the role of dopamine in amphetamine anorexia. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1988;30:641-8.
10. Foltin RW, Fischman MW, Nautiyal C. The effects of cocaine on food intake of baboons before, during, and after a period of repeated desipramine. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1990; 36:869-74.
11. Wang GJ, Wolkow ND, Wong CT. Behaviour and cardiovascular effects of intravenous methylphenidate in normal subjects and cocaine abusers. European Addiction Res 1997;3:49-54.
12. Wang GJ, Volkow ND, Logan J, Pappas NR, Wong CT, Zhu W, et al. Brain dopamine and obesity. Lancet 2001;357:354-7.
13. Haltia LT, Rinne JO, Merisaari H, Maguire RP, Savontaus E, Helin S, et al. Effects of intravenous glucose on dopaminergic function in the human brain in vivo. Synapse 2007;61:748-56.
14. Colantuoni C, Schwenker J, McCarthy J, Rada P, Ladenheim B, Cadet JL, et al. Excessive sugar intake alters binding to dopamine and mu-opioid receptors in the brain. Neuroreport 2001;12:3549-52.
15. Bello NT, Lucas LR, Hajnal A. Repeated sucrose access influences dopamine D2 receptor density in the striatum. Neuroreport 2002;13:1575-8.
16. Paul M, Paul J. Dopamine D2 receptors in addiction-like reward dysfunction and compulsive eating in obese rats. Nat Neurosci 2010;13:635-41.
17. Davis C, Strachan S, Berkson M. Sensitivity to reward: implications for overeating and overweight. Appetite 2004;42:131-8.
18. Stice E, Spoor S, Bohon C, Small DM. The relation between obesity and blunted striatal response to food is moderated by TaqIA A1 allele. Science 2008;322:449-52.
19. Inoue K, Kiriike N, Fujisaki Y, Okuno M, Ito H, Yamagami S, et al. D2 receptors in the ventrolateral striatum are involved in feeding behaviour in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1995;50:153-61.
20. Jayanthi A. Effect of Mucuna pruriens seeds on fertility of male albino rats Rattus norvegicus. J Pharm Res 2011;4:233-6.
21. Manyam BV, Dhanasekaran M, Hare T. Neuroprotective effects of antiparkinson drug Mucuna pruriens. Phytother Res 2004;18:706-12.
22. Kirtikar KR, Basu BD. Indian medicinal plants. Dehradhun: International book distributors, booksellers and publishers; 1996.
23. Kasture S, Pontis S, Pinna A, Schintu N, Spina L, Longoni R, et al. Assessment of symptomatic and neuroprotective efficacy of Mucuna pruriens seed extract in a rodent model of Parkinson's disease. Neurotox Res 2009;15:111-22.
24. Dhanasekaran S, Ratheeshkumar K, Palayan M. Effect of ethanolic seed extract of Mucuna pruriens on haloperidol-induced tardive dyskinesia in rats. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res 2010;3:106-13.
25. Dhanasekaran S, Vaidya RA, Sheth AR, Aloorkar SD, Rege NR, Bagadia VN, et al. The inhibitory effect of the cowhage plant-Mucuna pruriens and L-DOPA on chlorpromazine-induced hyperprolactinaemia in man. Neurology 1978;26:177-8.
26. Hussain G, Gazala H. Mucuna pruriens proves more effective than L-DOPA in Parkinson's disease animal model. Phytother Res 1997;2:419-23.
27. Majekodunmi SO, Oyagbemi AA, Umukoro S, Odeku OA. Evaluation of the antidiabetic properties of Mucuna pruriens seed extract. Asian Pac J Trop Med 2011;4:632-6.
28. Rajeshwar Y, Gupta M, Mazumder UK. Antitumor activity and in vivo antioxidant status of Mucuna pruriens (Fabaceae) seeds against ehrlich ascites carcinoma in Swiss albino mice. Iranian J Pharmacol Ther 2005;4:46-53.
29. Sonpetkar JM, Nipate SS, Shenoy PA, Chaudhari PD. In vitro antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC. seeds. J Pharm Res 2012;5:2769-72.
30. Eze ED, Mohammed A, Musa KY, Tanko Y, Isa AS. Effect of ethanolic leaf extract of Mucuna pruriens (fabaceae) on lipid profile in alloxan-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Br J Pharmacol Toxicol 2012;3:102-9.
31. Modi KP, Patel MN, Goyal RK. Protective effects of aqueous extract of Mucuna pruriens Linn. (DC) seed against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats. Iran J Pharmacol Ther 2008;7:131-5.
32. Barnard RJ, Faria DJ, Menges JE, Martin DA. Effects of a high-fat, sucrose diet on serum insulin and related atherosclerotic risk factors in rats. Atherosclerosis 1993;2:229-36.
33. Gupta S, Manish K. Histomorphological and hypolipidemic effects from the whole plant of Gymnema sylvestre in high cafeteria diet-induced obese rat model. J Pharm Biomed Sci 2010;2:1-9.
34. Loncar D, Afzelius BA, Cannon B. Epididymal white adipose tissue after cold stress in rats. I. nonmitochondrial changes. J Ultrastruct Mol Struct Res 1988;101:109-22.
35. Schlumfjf M, lichtensteiger W, langemann H, Waser PG, Hefti F. A fluorometric micro method for the simultaneous determination of serotonin, noradrenaline and dopamine in milligram amounts of brain tissue. Biochem Pharmacol 1974;23:2337-446.
36. Jacobowitz D, Richardson J. Method for the rapid determination of norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin in the same brain region. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1977;8:515-9.