• G. Narendra kumar Faculty of Bio and Chemical Engineering, Department of Biotechnology, Sathyabama University, Chennai-600 119.
  • Selva Kumar Rasi Nutri Foods, Namakkal- 636 301
  • S. Vimalan Rasi Nutri Foods, Namakkal- 636 301
  • P. Prakash Faculty of Bio and Chemical Engineering, Department of Biotechnology, Sathyabama University, Chennai-600 119
  • S. Nandagopal Faculty of Bio and Chemical Engineering, Department of Biotechnology, Sathyabama University, Chennai-600 119
  • R. barani Kumar Faculty of Bio and Chemical Engineering, Department of Bioinformatics, Sathyabama University, Chennai-600119


Desmodium gangeticum, Nil, Anti-oxidant activity, IAA, IBA, BAP, Kinetin


Objective: Desmodium gangeticum (Linn.) DC of Fabaceae is the vital plant used in ancient medicinal system of Ayurveda which was originated in India. This plant was reported to be a good result on cardiac system and nervous system. It has an ability to cures burning sensation, fever, cough, difficult breathing, dysentery, thirst and vomiting. D. gangeticum has also been reported to contain alkaloids, flavone and isoflavanoid glycosides. The plant has been reported to contain gangetin, a pterocarpnoid shown to possess anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. The potent in vitro antioxidant activity of the 50% hydroalcoholic (total) extract. Phenolics are reported to be good antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents. Since the plant under investigation is reported to contain both alkaloids and flavones along with isoflavanoid glycosides. The useful part is the root and it is an important ingredient in more than 50 Ayurvedic formulations like Chyavanaprasam, Dhanuantharam kuzhambu, Dasamularishtam etc. The objectives of the work is to optimize the maximum callus production by Desmodium ganageticum using response surface methodology (RSM) by developing an empirical model with different combination of Hormones and Growth promotes (IAA, IBA, BAP, and Kinetin) which were selected as the parameters.

Methods: Different medium were screened for the maximum callus production and Murashige and Skoog was selected in which different range of hormones and growth promotes were added. The model evaluates the effect of each independent variable to a response. The mathematical relationship of the independent variables and the response can be calculated by the quadratic polynomial equation. The anti-oxidant activity was analyzed.

Results: Models were developed by Central composite design (CCD) with the selected parameters. The regression analysis (R2) of RSM showed 97%. The optimal conditions for the maximal callus yield were IAA - 3, IBA - 0.5, BAP - 0.75 and Kinetin - 0.75.The work reported is a novel concept of combining the statistical modeling for an improved yield of callus of Desmodium gangeticum. The antioxidant activity of the intact plant compared which callus by superoxide scavenging, Hydroxy radical scavenging activity, Lipid peroxide assay, Nitric oxide radical inhibition activity.

Conclusion: The development of rapid and efficient method for media preparation was established using RSM-CCD.


Download data is not yet available.


Balandrin MJ, Klocke JA. Medicinal, aromatic and industrial materials from plants. In Y.P.S. Bajaj (ed). Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry. Medicinal and Aromatic Plant, vol. 4:Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg;1988.p. 1-36.

Rice-Evans CA, Miller NJ, Bolwell PG, Bramley PM, Pridham JB. The relative activities of Plant-derived polyphenolic flavonoid. J Free radical Res 1995 22:375-83.

Sala A, Recio MD, Giner RM, Manez S, Tournier H, Schinella G, et al. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of Helichrysum italicum. J Pharm Pharmacol 2002;54 (3):365-71.

Ashok kumar D, Mazumder UK, Gupta M, Senthil kumar GP, Selvan VT. Evaluation of Antioxidant and Free Radical Scavenging Activities of Oxystelma esculentum in various in vitro, Models. J Comp Integ Med 5 (1);2008.

Veerapur VP, Prabhakar KR, Parihar VP, Kandadi MR, Ramakrishana S, Mishra B, et al. Ficus racemosa. Stem Bark Extract:A Potent Antioxidant and a Probable Natural Radioprotector. J Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2009;6 (3):317-24.

Kitts DD, Yuan YV, Wijewickreme AN, Hu C. Antioxidant properties of a North American gingseng extract. J Mol Cell Biochem 2000;203:1-10.

Miliauskas G, Venskutonis PR, van Beek TA. Screening of radical scavenging activity of some medicinal and aromatic plant extracts. J Food Chem 2004;85:231-7.

Katalinic V, Milos M, Kulisic T, Jukic M. Screening of 70 medicinal plants extracts for antioxidant capacity and total phenols. J Food Chem 2006;94:550-7.

Adam Matkowski, Patrycja Tasarz and Emilia Szypuła. Antioxidant activity of herb extracts from five medicinal plants from Lamiaceae, subfamily Lamioideae. J of Medicinal Plants Res 2008;2 (11):321-30.

Olayinka AA, Anthony IO. Preliminary phytochemical screening and In vitro antioxidant activities of the aqueous extract of Helichrysum longifolium DC. J Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2010;10(2):11-8.

Rahmat Ali Khan, Muhammad Rashid Khan, Sumaira Sahreen, Mushtaq Ahmed. Evaluation of phenolic contents and antioxidant activity of various solvent extracts of Sonchus asper (L.) Hill. J Chemistry Central 2012;6(12):2-7.

Rekha Bisht, Bhattacharya S. Effect of various extracts of Desmodium gangeticum on Streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced type-2 diabetes. Asian J of Plant Sci and Res 2013;3(3):28-34.

Mc Cord JM, Fridovich I. Superoxide dismutase anenzymic function for erythrocuprein Hemocuprein. J Biol Chem 1969;244:6049-55.

Elizabeth K, Rao, MNA. Oxygen radical scavenging activity of Curcumin. Int J Pharmaceut 1990;58;237-40.

Gow-Chin Yen, Chiu-Luan Hsieh. Antioxidant activity of extracts from Du-zhong (Eucommia ulmoides) toward various lipid peroxidation Models in vitro. J Agric Food Chem 1998;46:3952-7.

Garratt DC. The quantitative analysis of Drugs. Volume 3. Chapman and Hall ltd. Japan;1964.p. 456-8.

Ayurvedic pharmacopoeia of India, Part-1 Vol. III. Govt. of India Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Dept. of ISM & H:New Delhi;2001. p. 178-9.

Ahmad I, Mehmood Z, Mohammad F. Screening of some Indian medicinal plants for their antimicrobial properties. J Ethnopharmacol 1998;62:183-93.

Avasthi BK, Tewari JD. A Preliminary phytochemical investigation of Desmodium gangeticum DG. (Leguminosae). J Am Pharm Assoc Am Pharm Assoc (Baltim) 1995;44:625-7.

Krishnasamy Karthikeyan, Gandhi Siddhar Selvam, Rajendran Srinivasan, Chidambaram Chandran, Subramaniyan Kulothungan, In vitro antibacterial activity of Desmodium gangeticum (L.) DG. Asian Pacific J of Tropical Diseases 2012;421-4.

Jabbar S. Khanand MT. Choudhuri MS. The effect of aqueous extracts of Desmodium gangeticum DG. (Leguminosae) on the central nerve system. J Pharmazie 2001;56:506-8.

Purushothman KK, Kishore VM, Narayanaswamy V. The structure and stereochemistry of gangetin. A new pterocarpan from Desmodium gangeticum. J Chem Soc 1971;2420–22.

Chopra RN, Nayar SL, Chopra IC. Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants, CSIR, New Delhi;1956.

Muselik J, Garcia-Alonso M, Martin-Lopez MP, Zelmieka M, Rivas-Gonzalo JC. Measurement of Antioxidant Activity of Wine Catechins, Procyanidins, Antocyanins and Piranoantocyanins. Int J Mol Sci 2007;8:797-809.

Miller CO, Skoog F, von Saltza HM, Okumura FS, Strong FM, Kinetin:structure and synthesis of kinetin. J Am Chem Soc 1955;77:2662-3.

Manoj Kumar Sagar, Aadesh Upadhyay, Kalpana, Kumud Upadhyaya. Evaluation of antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties of Desmodium gangeticum (L.) in experimental animal models. J Archives of Applied Sci Res 2010;2(4):33-43.

Govindarajan R, Vijayakumar AKS, Rawat A. Shirwaikar S. Mehrotra Pushpangadan P. Antioxidant activity of Desmodium gangeticum and its phenolics in arthritic rats. J Acta Pharm 2006;56:489-96.

Kurian GA, Philip S, Varghese T. Effect of aqueous extract of the Desmodium gangeticum DC root in the severity of myocardial infarction. J Ethnopharmacol 2005;21:457-61.

Ghosal S, Bhattacharya SK. Desmodium alkaloids II, Chemical and pharmacological evaluation of D. gangeticum. J Planta Med 1972;22:434-40.

Ghosh D, Anandkumar A. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of gangetin – a pterocarpenoid from Desmodium gangeticum. Indian J Pharmacol 1981;15:391–402.

Govindarajan RS, Rastogi M, Vijayakumar AKS, Rawat A, Shirwaikar S, Mehrotra Pushpangadan P. Studies on antioxidant activities of Desmodium gangeticum. J Biol Pharm Bull 2003;26. 1424-7

Murashige T, Skoog F. A revised medium for rapid growth and bio assays with tobacco tissue cultures. J Physiol Plant 1962;15:473–97.



How to Cite

Narendra kumar, G., S. Kumar, S. Vimalan, P. Prakash, S. Nandagopal, and R. barani Kumar. “OPTIMIZATION OPTIMIZATION OF GROWTH PROMOTERS ON DESMODIUM GANGETICUM (L) DC USING RSM-CCD AND ITS ANTIOXIDANTS ACTIVITYOF GROWTH PROMOTERS ON DESMODIUM GANGETICUM (L) DC USING RSM-CCD AND ITS ANTIOXIDANTS ACTIVITY”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 6, no. 8, Aug. 2014, pp. 503-7, https://innovareacademics.in/journals/index.php/ijpps/article/view/1596.



Original Article(s)