PHARMACY PRACTICE EXPERIENTIAL PROGRAMS IN THE CONTEXT OF CLINICAL EDUCATION
Keywords:Pharmacy practice experience, Pharmaceutical care, Systematic literature review
Objective: To identify studies describing and/or assessing pharmacy practice experiential programs focusing on clinical education.
Methods: A systematic literature review was carried out. The databases searched included Lilacs, Medline/Pubmed, Eric and Scopus. The search strategy was devised based on a combination of subject headings related to pharmacy practice experiential programs, pharmacy education, and clinical practice in pharmacy. Two reviewers independently performed article selection, applying eligibility criteria defined. The level of agreement between the reviewers (Kappa coefficient) was calculated. Information about the clinical practice and settings used, description of pharmacy practice experiential model and type of evaluation study performed was collected from the articles selected using a pre structured form.
Results: Of the 474 items retrieved in the initial search, 31 articles met the eligibility criteria. An increase in the number of publications in the 2000s was noted, predominantly (n=22, 71.0%) from North America. Pharmaceutical care was the most commonly used term to denote clinical practice in pharmacy. The practice sites ranged from hospitals (n=13, 41.9%), outpatient clinics (n=12, 38.7%), community pharmacies (n=7, 22.6%) and other community institutions (n=10, 32.3%), whereas some experiences involved a combination of these settings. The most common organizational arrangement involved pharmacists from the healthcare service as preceptors supervising students in the field, and teachers as educators, tutors and researchers within universities. In some situations, however, teachers and more advanced students acted as preceptors. Educational outcomes and/or results related to the service delivered by students and preceptors were assessed, where the quantitative method was the most frequently employed approach in both cases.
Conclusion: The studies revealed that the partnership among university, health services and community is a promising initiative for improving the quality of pharmaceutical services offered to society and of pharmaceutical education.
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