STUDIES ON IN VITRO ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITIES OF HOPEA PONGA AND VITEX LEUCOXYLON
Objective: Evaluating antidiabetic property of Hopea ponga and Vitex leucoxylon extracts by using in vitro assays.
Methods: The exhaustive serial extraction was carried out with a series of solvents: chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, ethanol and water with increasing polarity using Soxhlet apparatus. The concentrated and dried extracts were evaluated for antidiabetic activity by employing standard in vitro techniques (Î±-amylase and glucose uptake assay using yeast model in which the effects of extracts on Î±-amylase and glucose uptake was tested by considering the percentage of inhibition of Î±-amylase and increase in glucose uptake in yeast cells).
Results: In vitro antidiabetic studies show that in case of Hopea ponga methanol extract showed comparable antidiabetic activity with percentage of Î±-amylase inhibition 51.7925Â±0.92794 % and with IC50 value 96.53 Âµg and it was less on comparison with standard i.e. 71.0907Â±0.67796% with IC50 value 70.33 Âµg and in case of glucose uptake assay aqueous extract showed higher activity over all remaining extracts with percentage of inhibition 49.8100Â±0.62476% and with IC50 value 250.95 Âµg. whereas in case of Vitex leucoxylon aqueous extract exhibited significant activity in both performed assays i. e Î±-amylase inhibition and glucose uptake assay with percentage 54.6147Â±0.46397% and 57.1337Â±0.44201% respectively when compared to other solvent extracts.
Conclusion: Results confirm that aqueous extract of Vitex leucoxylon exhibited highest antidiabetic activity among all extracts. Additional studies are needed for purification, characterization and structural elucidation of bioactive compounds from aqueous extract and also confirm its antidiabetic property by in vivo studies. The present study provides scientific evidence that the leaves of Hopea ponga and Vitex leucoxylon possess anti-diabetic efficacy. Thus, considering its relative antidiabetic potency, these extracts are the useful therapeutic agents for treating and management of diabetes.
2. Foulis AK. The pathogenesis of Î² cell destruction in Type-1 (insulin dependent) diabetes mellitus. J Pathol 1987;152:141-8.
3. Gepts W, LeCompte PM. The pathology of type 1 (juvenile) diabetes. In: BW Yolk, ER Arquilla. Eds. The diabetic pancreas, Plenum, New York; 1985. p. 337-65.
4. Trease A, Evans WC. Pharmacognosy. 14th Edn. WB Saunders Company, limited, London; 1996. p. 35-7, 219, 224-8.
5. Gispen WH, Biessels GJ. Cognition and synaptic plasticity in diabetes mellitus. Trends Neurosci 2000;23:542-9.
6. Piedrola G, Novo E, Escober F, Garciaâ€Robles R. White blood cell count and insulin resistance in patients with coronary artery disease. Annee Endocrinol 2001;62:7â€10.
7. Stamp N. Out of the quagmire of plant defence hypotheses. Quarterly Rev Biol 2003;78:23â€55.
8. Aeschbacher HU, Meier H, Ruch E. Nonmutagenicity in vivo of the food flavonol quercetin. Nutr Cancer 1982;2:90.
9. Reinhold U, Seiter S, Ugurel S, Tilgen W. Treatment of progressive pigmented purpura with oral bioflavonoids and ascorbic acid: an open pilot study in 3 patients. J Am Acad Dermatol 1999;41:207â€8.
10. Knekt P, Jarvinen R, Seppanan R, Heliovaara M, Teppo L, Pukkala E, et al. Dietary flavonoids and the risk of lung cancer and other malignant neoplasms. Am J Epidemiol 1997;146:223â€30.
11. Prashanth KN, Neelam S, Chauhan S, Harishpadhi B, Ranjani M. Search for antibacterial and antifungal agents from selected Indian medicinal plants. J Ethnopharmacol 2006;107:182-8.
12. Joy KL, Kuttan R. Antidiabetic activity of Picorrhiza kurroa extract. J Ethnopharmacol 1999;167:143â€8.
13. Bhalodi M, Shukla S, Saluja AK. In vitro antioxidant activity of the flowers of Ipomoea aquatic forsk. Pharmacogn Mag 2008;4:220-6.
14. Bhandari MR, Anurakkun NJ, Hong G, Kawabata J. Alpha glucosidase and alpha-amylase inhibitory activities of Nepalese medicinal herb Pakhanbhed (Bergenia ciliata, Haw.). Food Chem 2008;106:247-52.
15. Jung M, Park M, Chul HL, Kang Y, Seok-Kang E, Ki-Kim S. Antidiabetic agents from medicinal plants. Curr Med Chem 2006;13:1-16.
16. Shiddamallayya N, Azra Y, Gopakumar K. Medico botanical survey parvatha kkuke subramanaya mangalore Karnatak. Indian J Tradi Med 2008;9:96-9.
17. Muralikrishnan H, Chandrashekar KR. Regeneration of hopea ponga: influence of wing loading and viability of seeds. J Trop Forest Sci 1997;10:58-65.
18. Shivaprasad PV, Vasanthraj BK, Chandrashekar KR. Dipterocarps of the Western Ghats of Karnataka. Indian J Forest 1999;9:201-6.
19. Sukesh, Syed Hidayath, Haneef M, Arunkumar K, Chandrashekar KR. Phytochemical evaluation, antioxidant and antibacterial activity of seed wings of Hopea ponga (Dennst). Mabberly Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2011;8:2593-5.
20. Chanda YR. The wealth of India: a dictionary of Indian raw materials and Industrial products. Publication and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi; 1982. p. 520-21.
21. Makwana HG, Ravishankar B, Shukla VJ, Vijayan NP, Sasikala CK, Saraswathy VN, et al. General pharmacology of Vitex leucoxylon linn leaves. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 1994;38:95-100.
22. Sarma SP, Aithal KS, Srinivasan KK, Udupa AL, Kumar V, Kulkarni DR, et al. Anti-inflammatory and wound healing activities of the crude alcoholic extract and flavonoids of Vitex leucoxylon. Fitoterapia 1990;61:263-5.
23. Meena AK, Uttam Singh, Yadav AK, Singh B, Rao MM. Pharmacological and phytochemical evidence for the extracts from plants of the genus vitexâ€“a review. Int J Pharm Clin Res 2010;2:1-9.
24. Rao RVK, Satyanarayana T, Jena R. Phytochemical studies on Vitex leucoxylon L. Indian Drugs 1997;34:50-1.
25. Malik CP, Singh MB. Plant Enzymology and Histoenzymology, Kalyani Publishers: New Delhi; 1980. p. 278.
26. Cirillo VP. Sugar transports in psychrophilic yeast. J Bacteriol 1963;84:485â€“91.
27. Apostolidis E, Lee CM. In vitro potential of Ascophyllum nodosum phenolic antioxidant-mediated-glucosidase and-amylase inhibition. J Food Sci 2010;75:97â€“102.
28. Oboh G, Ademiluyi AO, Akinyemi AJ, Henle TH, Saliu JA, Schwarzenbolz U. Inhibitory effect of polyphenol-rich extracts of jute leaf (Corchorus olitorius) on key enzyme linked to type 2 diabetes (alpha amylase and alpha glucosidase) and hypertension (angiotensin I converting) in vitro. J Funct Foods 2012;4:450â€“8.
29. Yao X, Ling Zhu L, Chen Y, Tian J, Wanga Y. In vivo and in-vitro antioxidant activity and a-glucosidase, a-amylase inhibitory effects of flavonoids from Cichorium glandulosum seeds. Food Chem 2013;139:59â€“66.
30. Sunila C, Agastian P, Kumarappan C, Ignacimuthu S. In vitro antioxidant, antidiabetic and antilipidemic activities of Symplocos cochinchinensis (Lour.) S. Moore bark. Food Chem Toxicol 2012;50:1547-53.
31. Kambouche N, Merah B, Derdour A, Bellahouel S, Bouayed J, Dicho A, et al. Hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic effects of Anabasis articulata (Forssk) Moq (Chenopodiaceae), an Algerian medicinal plant. Afr J Biotechnol 2009; 8:5578e83.
32. Ajithadas Aruna, Ramraj Nandhini, Venkatachalam Karthikeyan, Pandi Bose, Kannappan Vijayalakshmi. Comparative anti-diabetic effect of methanolic extract of insulin plant (costus pictus) leaves and its silver nanoparticle. Indo Am J Pharm Res 2014;4:3217-30.
33. Mani Rupeshkumar, Kunchu Kavitha, Pallab Kanti Haldar. Role of herbal plants in the diabetes mellitus therapy: an overview. Int J Appl Pharm 2014;6:1-3.