PHYTOCHEMICALS, ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY AND PHENOLIC PROFILING OF DIPLOCYCLOS PALMATUS (L.) C. JEFFERY


Usmangani A. Attar, Savaliram G. Ghane

Abstract


Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze phytochemicals, antioxidant potential and phenolic profiling of leaf and fruit extracts of Diplocyclos palmatus.

Methods: The leaves and fruits were subjected for sequential extraction with hexane, chloroform, methanol and water. All extracts were subjected to biochemical studies such as phenols, tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids and antioxidant assays such as 1,1-diphenyl-1-picryl
hydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2’ Azinobis (3-ethyl-benzothiozoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), ferric reducing antioxidant property (FRAP), metal chelating and phospho- molybdenum reduction assay. Further methanolic extract was used for phenolics characterization by reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC).

Results: It was observed that methanol fruit extract showed significantly higher phenolics (9.29±0.01 mg tannic acid equivalent (TAE)/g extract), flavonoids (15.02±0.96 mg catechin equivalent (CE)/g extract) and terpenoids (276.73±0.76 mg ursolic acid equivalent (UAE)/g extract). However, chloroform extracts of leaf and fruit exhibited a high amount of tannins (22.07±0.06, 6.99±0.10 mg CE/g extract) respectively. The extracts were subjected to assess their antioxidant potential using various in vitro systems such as DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, metal chelating and phospho- molybdenum reduction. Among the various extracts, methanol fruit extract had highest DPPH radical scavenging activity (26.73±0.14 mg ascorbic acid equivalent (AAE)/g extract), metal chelating activity (0.80±0.01 mg EDTA equivalent (EE)/g extract) and phospho- molybdenum activity (291.24±2.19 mg AAE/g extract). In ABTS radical scavenging assay, aqueous leaf extract (12.11±0.07 mg trolox equivalent (TE)/g extract) showed the best response. The effective ferric reducing antioxidant property (141.54±10.12 mg Fe (II)/g extract) was exhibited by aqueous fruit extract. Overall, methanol and water were found to be the best solvents for the extraction of antioxidant compounds from fruit and leaf. In the RP-HPLC analysis, the major bioactive phenolic compounds such as catechin (CA) and hydroxybenzoic acid (HBA) were recorded in leaf as compared to fruit. In leaf, CA and chlorogenic acid (CLA) were principal compounds in leaf and fruit respectively. However, gallic acid (GA), HBA, CLA and vanillic acid (VA) were widespread in leaf and fruit.

Conclusion: On the basis of the results, it was found that D. palmatus may serve as a novel and rich source of natural antioxidants and it can be further explored for pharmaceutical purposes.


Keywords


Diplocyclos palmatus, Antioxidant, Reactive oxygen species, RP-HPLC

| PDF | HTML |

References


Goun E, Cunningham G, Chu D, Nguyen C, Miles D. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of Indonesian ethnomedical plants. Fitoterapia 2003;74:592-6.

Cai YZ, Sun M, Corke H. Antioxidant activity of betalains from plants of the Amaranthaceae. J Agric Food Chem 2003;51:2288-94.

Gramza–Michałowska A, Czlapka–Matyasik M. Evaluation of the antiradical potential of fruit and vegetable snacks. Acta Sci Pol Technol Aliment 2011;10:61-72.

Zhang WM, Li B, Han L, Zhang HD. Antioxidant activities of extracts from areca (Areca catectu L.) flower husk and seed. Afr J Biotechnol 2009;8:3887-92.

Gupta VK, Sharma SK. In vitro antioxidant activities of aqueous extract of Ficus bangalensis Linn Root. Int J Biol Chem 2010;4:134-40.

Scalbert A, Johnson IT, Saltmarsh M. Polyphenols: antioxidants and beyond. Am J Clin Nutr 2005;81:215-7.

Krishnarajua AV, Rao TVN, Sundararajua D, Vanisreeb M, Tsayb H, Subbaraju GV. Assessment of bioactivity of Indian medicinal plants using Brine Shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality assay. Int J Appl Sci Eng 2005;3:125-34.

Singh V, Malviya T. A non-ionic glucomannan from the seeds of an indigenous medicinal plant: Bryonia lacinosa. Carbohydr Polym 2006;64:481-3.

Kadam P, Bodhankar S. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of seed extracts of Diplocyclos palmatus (L) C. Jeffrey. Int J Pharma Bio Sci 2013a;4:970-8.

Kadam P, Bodhankar S. Antiarthritic activity of ethanolic seed extracts of Diplocyclos palmatus (L) C. Jeffrey in experimental animals. Der Pharm Lett 2013b;5:233-42.

Devi TS, Padmaja IJ, Harshitha C, Kalyani CS, Lakshmi N, Bhavani AKD. Anti dermatophytic activity on ethnomedical plants used by a primitive tribe “Gadabas” of Paderu. Int J Pharm Bio Sci 2014;5:292-9.

Gupta P, Wagh RD. A review on morphology, phytochemistry, pharmacology and folklore uses of Diplocyclos palmatus (L.) Jeffry. Int J Pharm Life Sci 2014;5:3622-6.

Singleton VL, Rossi JA. Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphotungstic acid reagents. Am J Enol Vitic 1965;16:144-58.

Bhat R, Sridhar KR, Yokotani KT. Effect of ionising radiation on antinutritional features of velvet bean seeds (Mucuan pruriens). Food Chem 2007;103:860-6.

Sakanaka S, Tachibana Y, Okada Y. Preparation and antioxidant properties of extracts of Japanese persimmon leaf tea (Kakinoha-cha). Food Chem 2005;9:569-75.

Chang CL, Lin CS. Phytochemical composition, antioxidant activity and neuroprotective effect of Terminalia chebula Retzius extract. J Evidence-Based Complementary Altern Med 2011. Doi:10.1155/2012/125247.

Brand-Williams W, Cuvelier ME, Berset C. Use of free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. Lebanon Wissen Technol 1995;28:25-30.

Re R, Pellegrini N, Proteggente A, Pannala A, Yang M, Rice‐Evans C. Antioxidant activity applying an improved ABTS radical cation decolorization assay. Free Radical Biol Med 1999;26:1231-7.

Dinis TCP, Madeira VMC, Almeida LM. The action of phenolics derivatives (acetaminophen, alicylate, and 5‐amino salicylate) as inhibitors of membrane lipid peroxidation and as peroxyl radical scavengers. Arch Biochem Biophys 1994;315:161-9.

Benzie IFF, Strain JJ. The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of “Antioxidant power” The FRAP assay. Anal Biochem 1996;239:70-6.

Prieto P, Pineda M, Aguilar M. Spectrophotometric quantitation of antioxidant capacity through the formation of a phospho- molybdenum complex: specific application to the determination of vitamin E. Anal Biochem 1999;269:337-41.

Roya K, Fatemeh G. Screening of total phenol and flavonoid content, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the methanolic extracts of three Silene species from Iran. Int J Agric Crop Sci 2013;5:305-12.

Duthie GG, Gardner PT, Kyle JAM. Plant polyphenols: are they the new magic bullet? Proc Nutr Soc 2003;62:599-603.

Kumari S. Evaluation of phytochemical analysis and antioxidant and antifungal activity of Pithecellobium dulce leaves extract. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2017;10:370-5.

Yokazawa T, Chen CP, Dong E, Tanaka T, Nonaka GI, Nishioka I. Study on the inhibitory effect of tannins and flavonoids against the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical. Biochem Pharmacol 1998;56:213-22.

Nivedhini V, Chandran R, Parimelazhagan T. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of Cucumis dipsaceus Ehrenb. Ex Spach fruit. Int Food Res J 2014;21:1465-72.

Cao G, Sofic E, Prior RL. Antioxidant and prooxidant behaviour of flavonoids: structure-activity relationships. Free Radical Biol Med 2009;22:749-60.

Archana I, Vijayalakshmi K. Preliminary phytochemical screening and in vitro free radical scavenging activity of root extracts of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2016;9:85-90.

Gershenzon J, Dudareva N. The function of terpene natural products in the natural world. Nat Chem Biol 2007;3:408-14.

Dillard CJ, German JB. Phytochemicals: nutraceuticals and human health. J Sci Food Agric 2000;80:1744-56.

Leong LP, Shui G. An investigation of antioxidant capacity of fruits in Singapore markets. Food Chem 2002;76:69-75.

Flora SJS. Structural, chemical and biological aspects of antioxidants for strategies against metal and metalloid exposure. Oxid Med Cellular Longev 2009;2:191-206.

Pulido R, Bravo L, Sauro-Calixo F. Antioxidant activity of dietary polyphenols as determined by a modified ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay. J Agric Food Chem 2000;48:3396-402.

Irshad M, Ahmad I, Mehndi SG, Goel HC, Rizvi MMA. Antioxidant capacity and phenolic content of the aqueous extract of commonly consumed cucurbits. Int J Food Prop 2014;17:179-86.

Biswas S, Dasgupta N, De B. Antioxidant activity of some Indian medicinal plants used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Pharmacol Online 2010;3:7-21.

Wang Z, Loo WT, Wang N, Chow LW, Wang D, Han F, et al. Effect of Sanguisorba officinalis L. on breast cancer growth and angiogenesis. Exp Opin Ther Targets 2012;1:79-89.




About this article

Title

PHYTOCHEMICALS, ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY AND PHENOLIC PROFILING OF DIPLOCYCLOS PALMATUS (L.) C. JEFFERY

Keywords

Diplocyclos palmatus, Antioxidant, Reactive oxygen species, RP-HPLC

DOI

10.22159/ijpps.2017v9i4.16891

Date

14-02-2017

Additional Links

Manuscript Submission

Journal

International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
Vol 9, Issue 4, 2017 Page: 101-106

Online ISSN

0975-1491

Statistics

143 Views | 102 Downloads

Authors & Affiliations

Usmangani A. Attar
Department of Botany, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004, Maharashtra, India
India

Savaliram G. Ghane
Department of Botany, Shivaji University, Kolhapur 416004, Maharashtra, India
India


Article Tools



Refbacks