ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF FLAVONOID FROM KEPEL (STELECHOCARPUS BURAHOL) LEAVES AGAINST STAPHYLOCOCCUS EPIDERMIDIS

  • Susi Indariani Tropical Biopharmaca Research Center, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor 16128, Indonesia
  • Aisyah Hidayat Department of Chemistry, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor 16151, Indonesia
  • Latifah K. Darusman Tropical Biopharmaca Research Center, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor 16128, Indonesia
  • Irmanida Batubara Department of Chemistry, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor 16151, Indonesia

Abstract

Objective: The objective of this research was to separate flavonoids of kepel (Stelechocarpus burahol) leaves from methanol extract as antibacterial agent against Staphylococcus epidermidis that have a role in body odor.

Methods: The methanol extracts of kepel was fractionated in methanol: water (7:3), n-hexane and chloroform consecutively. Methanol: water (7:3) extract with the highest flavonoids content, fractioned by silica gel column chromatography (isocratic elution, with n-buthanol: methanol: acetic acid (1:8:1) as eluent) to produce 7 fractions. All fractions were tested for antibacterial activity with a microdilution method. The most active fractions was determined using UV-VIS spectrophotometer (Shimadzu, Japan) and FTIR (Brucker, Germany).

Results: Fraction V was the most active fraction with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) 0.06 mg/ml and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of 0.50 mg/ml. Fraction V was further separated by preparative thin layer chromatography (TLC) and gave three fractions. Fraction V3 was the most active fraction with MIC 1.00 mg/ml and MBC of 2.00 mg/ml. Identification of fraction V3 based on assessments on ultraviolet-visible and infrared spectrum showed the maximum wavelength at 327 nm. These results indicate a transition π → π * and n → π * generated from the chromophore conjugated C = C and C = O. Based on the allegations of the functional group obtained, then alleged that in Fraction V3 containing flavones compounds.

Conclusion: These results suggest that flavonoid of S. burahol leaves extracts is potential as antibacterial agents against S. epidermidisand therefore justifies their usage in traditional medicine for the treatment of body odor.

 

Keywords: Fractionation, Flavonoid, Stelechocarpus burahol, Antibacterial, Staphylococcus epidermidis

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

1. Havlicek J, Lenochova P. The effect of meat consumption on body odor attractiveness. Chem Senses 2006;31:747–52.
2. James AG, Austin CJ, Cox DS, Taylor D, Calvert R. Microbiological and biochemical origins of human axillary odour. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 2013;83:527-40.
3. Endarti, Sukandar EY, Soediro I. Study of usnic acid activity against bacteria that cause body odor. J Bahan Alam Indonesia 2004;3:151-7.
4. Heyne K. The Useful Indonesian Plants. Jakarta (Indonesia): Research and Development Agency, Ministry of Forestry; 1987.
5. Darusman HS, Rahminiwati M, Sadiah S, Batubara I, Darusman LK, Mitsunaga T. Indonesian kepel fruit (Stelechocarpus burahol) as oral deodorant. Res J Med Plant 2012;6:180-8.
6. Tisnadjaja D, Saliman E, Silvia, Simanjuntak P. Assessment of burahol (Stelechocarpus burahol (Blume) hook and Thomson) as fruit contains antioxidant compounds. Biodiversitas 2006;7:199-202.
7. Suparmi S, Isradji I, Yusuf I, Fatmawati D, Ratnaningrum IH, Fuadiyah S, et al. Anti-implantation activity of kepel (Stelechocarpus burahol) pulp ethanol extract in female mice. J Pure Appl Chem Res 2015;4:94-9.
8. Aziz SA, Ramadhan BC. Media and organic fertigation for growth and phytochemical properties of Stelechocarpus burahol in nursery. In: Rizal M, Widyastuti Y, Brotokardono L, Efendi R, Rohadi D, Herwati T, Januawati NM. editors. International Seminar Proceedings Forests and Medical Plants for Better Human Welfare. Indonesia: Center for Forest Productivity Research and Development; 2014. p. 200-4.
9. Hidayat A, Darusman LK, Batubara I. Fractination of the active compound from kepel (Stelechocarpus burahol) leaf extract as antibacterial. In: Wijaya CH, Ahcmadi SS, Suparto IH, Batubara I, Rukayadi Y, Sulistyani, Rafi M, Darusman LK. editors. The 2nd International Symposium on Temulawak. Indonesia: Biopharmaca Research Center; 2011. p. 112-3.
10. Purwantiningsih, Purwantini I, Santoso D. Identification of standard parameters of kepel leaves (Stelechocarpus burahol (Bl.) Hook. F. and Th.) and the extract as raw material for anti-hyperuricemic medicaments. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2011;4:149-53.
11. Sunarni T, Leviana F, Fidrianny I, Immaculata M, Wirasutisna KR. Antihyperuricemic and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities of fractions from ethanolic leaves extract of Stelechocarpus burahol. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2016;9:255-8.
12. Ramadhan BC, Aziz SA, Ghulamahdi MG. Potential bioactive content of kepel leaves (Stelechocarpus burahol). Bul Littro 2015;26:99-108.
13. Gill SR, Fouts DE, Archer GL, Mongodin EF, DeBoy RT, Ravel J, et al. Insights on evolution of virulence and resistance from the complete genome analysis of an early methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain and a biofilm-producing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis strain. J Bacteriol 2005;187:2426–38.
14. Sukadana IM. Flavonoid compound from sweet star fruit (Averrhoa carambola Linn L) as antibacterial. J Kimia 2009;3:109-16.
15. Harborne JB. Phytochemical methods. 2nd ed. London (England): Chapman and Hall; 1984.
16. Batubara I, Mitsunaga T, Ohashi H. Screening antiacne potency of Indonesia medicinal plant: antibacterial, lipase inhibitor and antioxidant activities. J Wood Sci 2009;55:230-5.
17. Markham KR. Techniques of flavonoid identification. London: Academic Press; 1982.
18. Shashank K, Pandey AK. Chemistry and biological activities of flavonoids: an overview. Sci World J 2013;1-16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/162750
19. Shimada T. Salivary proteins as a defense against dietary tannins. J Chem Ecol 2006;32:1149-63.
20. Andrews JM. Determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations. J Antimicrob Chemother 2001;48(Suppl 1):5-16.
21. Aligiannis N, Kalpotzakis E, Mitaku S, Chinou IB. Composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of two origanum species. J Agric Food Chem 2001;40:4168-70.
22. Creswell CJ, Runquist OA, Campbell MM. Spectral analysis of organic compound. An introductory programmed text. Harlow London: Longman; 1972.
23. Alawiyah AL, Achmadi SS, Syahbirin G. Total phenolic content and flavone bioactivity of peanut hulls as antioxidant and antiproliferation toward Henrietta Lacks cancer cells. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2017;10:144-9.
24. Hazra KM, Roy RN, Sen SK, Laskar S. Isolation of antibacterial pentahydroxy flavones from the seeds of Mimusops elengi Linn. Afr J Biotechnol 2007;6:1446-9.
25. Sunarni T, Pramono S, Asmah R. Antioxidant–free radical scavenging of flavonoid from the leaves of Stelechocarpus burahol (Bl.) Hook f. and Th. Majalah Farmasi Indonesia 2007;18:111-6.
26. Field LD, Sternhell S, Kalman JR. Organic structures from spectra. 3rd ed. England: John Wiley and Sons; 2002.
Statistics
271 Views | 760 Downloads
How to Cite
Indariani, S., A. Hidayat, L. Darusman, and I. Batubara. “ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF FLAVONOID FROM KEPEL (STELECHOCARPUS BURAHOL) LEAVES AGAINST STAPHYLOCOCCUS EPIDERMIDIS”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 9, no. 10, Oct. 2017, pp. 292-6, doi:10.22159/ijpps.2017v9i10.19071.
Section
Original Article(s)