A VACCINATION APPROACH TO DEVELOP EXPERIMENTAL MODEL OF MALARIA VIA IMMUNIZATION OF MICE AGAINST PLASMODIUM YOELII NIGERIENSIS SOLUBLE ANTIGENS USING QS-21 AS ADJUVANT

  • Arti Singh Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology
  • Charan Singh Department of Pharmaceutical Technology (Formulations) NIPER, S. A. S. Nagar, Mohali,

Abstract

Objective: Malaria is the deadliest infectious diseases affecting millions of people worldwide. Several strategies have been under extensive research since decades including chemoprophylaxis and other disease antimalarial interventions like malaria vaccine. The vaccine development is more difficult to predict than drug development and presents a unique challenge as already there has been no vaccine effective against a parasite. For development and screening of malaria vaccine, a suitable animal model is the prime requirement. Non-human primate models are considerably a good choice to mimic human malarias, but due to various reasons like ethical, cost effective, maintenance and relative ease of conducting experiments. Rodent’s malaria vaccination models remain the preferred choice.

Methods: To develop such model we required 100% lethal host/parasite system that would be an ideal system for experimental vaccination studies. Such a rigorous model is particularly required for the identification and development of suitable adjuvant/co-adjuvant(s) for future human malaria vaccines.

Results: Because, P. yoelii nigeriensis invariably causes a 100% lethal fulminating infection in Swiss mice, so in present studies, we vaccinate Swiss mice with P. yoelii nigeriensis total P. yoelii nigeriensis - Soluble antigen (Pyn-SA)and saponin as adjuvant, following 100% lethal study homologous challenge and then followed by passive transfer of experiment.

Conclusion: P. yoelii nigeriensis caused a fulminant 100% lethal infection in mice (as saw in the control groups). The protection observed in the vaccinated group of mice can be unambiguously ascribed to vaccine-induced protective immunity only.

 

Keywords: Malaria, Vaccine, Pre-erythrocytic (PE), Blood-stage (BS), Circumsporozoite protein (CSP), Merozoite surface protein (MSP).

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Arti Singh, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER)

Sector-67, S.A.S. Nagar, Mohali

Punjab-160062

Charan Singh, Department of Pharmaceutical Technology (Formulations) NIPER, S. A. S. Nagar, Mohali,

Department of Pharmaceutical Technology (Formulation) National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER)

Sector-67, S.A.S. Nagar, Mohali

Punjab-160062

References

1. Guinovart C, Navia MM, Tanner M, Alonso PL. Malaria: Burden of Disease. Curr Mol Med 2006;6(2):137-40.
2. Miller LH, Baruch DI. The pathogenic basis of malaria. Nature 2002;415(6872):673-9.
3. Bruce-Chwatt LJ, Zulueta J. The rise and fall of malaria in Europe: a historic-epidemiological study 1980.
4. Coulter JBS. Global importance of parasitic disease. Curr Paediatry 2002;12(7):523-33.
5. Kashala. Safety, tolerability and immunogenicity of new formulations of the Plasmodium falciparum malaria peptide vaccine SPf66 combined with the immunological adjuvant QS-21. Vaccine 2002;20:2263-77.
6. Greenwoo B. Malaria vaccines: Evaluation and Implementation. Acta Tropica 2005;95(3):298-304.
7. Lewison G, Srivastava D. Malaria research, 1980-2004, and the burden of disease. Acta Tropica 2008;106(2):96-103.
8. Berzins K, Perlmann P. Malaria vaccines: attacking infected erythrocytes. In Malaria vaccine development: A multi immune response approach. Am Society Microbiol 1996;105-44.
9. Carlton JM, Caruccid J. Rodent models of malaria in the genomics era. Trends Parasitol 2002;18:100-2.
10. Culleton R. A pictorial guide to rodent malaria parasite. Edinburgh 2005.
11. Clark IA. Cell mediated immunity in protection and pathology of malaria. Parasitol Today 1987;3:300-5.
12. Grech K, Watt K. Host-parasite interactions for virulence and resistance in a malaria model system. J Evol Biol 2006;19(5):1620-30
13. Badell. A mouse model for human malaria erythrocytic stages. Parasitol Today 1995;11(6):235-7.
14. Su Z, Tam MF. Vaccination with novel immunostimulatory adjuvants against blood-stage malaria in mice. Infect Immunity 2003;71(9):51-78.
15. Playfair JHL, Souze JBDE. Vaccination of mice against malaria with soluble antigens. The effect of detergent, route of injection, and adjuvant. Parasite Immunol 1986;8(5):409-14.
16. Carlton JM, Angiuoli SV. Genome sequence and comparative analysis of the model rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium yoelii yoelii. Nature 2002;419(6906):512-9.
17. Dutta GP, Singh PP, Agarwal A, Agarwal SS. Serological studies in P. knowlesi infected convalescent rhesus monkeys. I J Med Res 1982;75:212-9.
18. Burns. Protective immunity against Plasmodium yoelii malaria induced by immunization with particulate blood-stage antigens. Infect Immunity 1997;65:3138-45.
19. Bradford MM. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantisation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal Biochem 1976;7:72:248-54.
20. Kinhikar AG, Singh PP. Production and Characterization of monoclonal antibodies against asexual stages of Plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis. Hybrid Hybridomics 2002;21(6):479-85.
21. Engwerda CR, Beattie L, Amante FH. The importance of the spleen in malaria. Trends Parasitol 2005;21(2):75-80.
22. Amante FH, Engwerda CR. Experimental Asexual Blood Stage Malaria Immunity. Current Protocol Immunol 2001;19.4.1-19.4.18.
23. Cohen S, McGregor IA, Carrington S. Gamma-globulin and acquired immunity to human malaria. Nature 1961;192:733-7.
24. Mitchell GH, Butcher GA, Cohen S. Merozoite vaccination against Plasmodium knowlesi malaria. Immunol 1975;29:397-407.
25. Topley E, Knight R, Woodruff AW. The direct antiglobulin titres in patients with malaria. Trans Rsoc Trop Med Hyg 1973;67:51-4.
26. Good MF, Doolan DL. Immune effector mechanisms in malaria. Curr Opin Immunol 1999;11:412-9.
27. Murphy JR, Lefford MJ. Host defences in murine malaria: induction of a protracted state of immunity with a formalin-killed Plasmodium berghei blood parasite vaccine. Infect Immun 1978;22:798-803.
28. Patarroyo. A synthetic vaccine protects humans against challenge with asexual blood stages of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Nature 1988;332:158-61.
29. Patarroyo. Induction of protective immunity against experimental infection with malaria using synthetic peptides. Nature 1987;328:629-32.
30. Lundie RJ. Antigen presentation in immunity to murine malaria. Curr Opin Immunol 2011;23(1):119-23.
31. Taylor-Robinson AW Regulation of immunity to Plasmodium: implications from mouse models for blood stage malaria vaccine design. Exp Parasitol 2010;126:406-14.
Statistics
262 Views | 477 Downloads
How to Cite
Singh, A., and C. Singh. “A VACCINATION APPROACH TO DEVELOP EXPERIMENTAL MODEL OF MALARIA VIA IMMUNIZATION OF MICE AGAINST PLASMODIUM YOELII NIGERIENSIS SOLUBLE ANTIGENS USING QS-21 AS ADJUVANT”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 6, no. 9, 1, pp. 333-7, https://innovareacademics.in/journals/index.php/ijpps/article/view/2078.
Section
Original Article(s)