ACUTE AND SUB-CHRONIC TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES ON METHANOLIC STEM EXTRACT OF ACALYPHA INDICA LINN IN ALBINO WISTAR RATS
Objective: The present study was aimed to investigate safety evaluation studies of methanolic stem extract of A. indica (AIS-ME) through acute and sub-chronic toxicity studies in albino wistar rats.
Methods: Acute toxicity test was carried out in albino wistar rats by single dosage administration of 500, 1000 and 1500mg/kg body weight of AIS-ME and observed for mortality and behavioural changes for a period of 24h. Sub-chronic toxicity studies were conducted by an oral administration of 100mg/kg body weight AIS-ME in albino wistar rats for a period of 30 consecutive days. Rats in sub-chronic toxicity studies were checked for body weight once in a week for 30 days and at the end of the experimental period, blood samples were collected for hematological and biochemical parameters. Organs (Liver and Kidney) were harvested and histological sections were made to examine for any organ damage after the treatment of AIS-ME.
Results: Acute toxicity study resulted in no mortality and behavioural changes even at the post oral dosage of 1500mg/kg body weight of AIS-ME. Sub-chronic toxicity revealed no significant changes in body weight, hematological and biochemical parameters of treated groups in comparision with the control groups. Histological sections of treated groups resulted in similar architecture as that of nomal groups suggesting no morphological damages of the internal organs.
Conclusion: This study concluded that AIS-ME is non toxic as per the results of acute and sub-chronic toxicity studies. Thus, it could be considered as a safe phytomedicine for oral administration in experimental rats.
2. Priya CL, Rao KVB. Phytochemical composition, antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of Acalypha indica Linn (Euphorbiaceae) stem extract: An in vitro study. Res J Biotechnol 2014;9(4):1-9.
3. Nadkarni KM. Indian Materia Medica. Volume I. Bombay Popular Prakashan; 2000.
4. Murugesa Muthaliar. Materia Medica (Vegetable section). 4th ed. Chennai (India): Tamilnadu Siddha Medical Council; 1988.
5. Reddy RA, Reddy GP, Venkateshwarlu E, Srinivas N, Ramya Ch, Nirmala D. Anti-diabetic and Hypo-lipidemic effect of Acalypha indica in Streptozotocin nicotinamide induced Type-II Diabetic Rats. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2012;4(2):205-12.
6. Reddy SJ, Rao RP, Reddy MS. Wound healing effects of Heliotropium indicum, Plumbago zeylanicum and Acalypha indica in rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2002;79:249-51.
7. Shivayogi P, Hiremath K, Rudresh, Shrishailappa B, Saraswati BP, Somanth RP. Post-coital antifertility activity of Acalypha indica L. J Ethnopharmacol 1999;67:253-58.
8. Rajendran K, Annie S, Maneesh M, Vijaya RB. In vitro and in vivo anti-snake venom (Daboia russelli) studies on various leaf extracts of Acalypha indica Linn. Int J Phytomedicine 2010;2(3):217-20.
9. Rahman MA, Sitesh CB, Mohammed R. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of methanolic extract of Acalypha indica Linn. Pak J Pharm Sci 2010;23(3):256-58.
10. Annomymous IN. The wealth of India raw material. Volume IA. New Delhi (India) Council of scientific and industrial research; 1985.
11. Das MC, Mahato SB. Triterpenoids. Phytochem 1983;22(5):1071-95.
12. Monika H, Matthias L, Frank RF, Adolf N. Cyanogenic and non-cyanogenic pyridone glucosides from Acalypha indica (Euphorbiaceae). Phytochem 2009;70:270-77.
13. Lopez-Lazaro, Miguel. Distribution and Biological activities of flavonoids luteolin. Mini Rev Med Chem 2009;9:31-59.
14. WHO. Principles for preclinical testing of drug safety: Report of a scientific group, World Health Technical report series. Geneva 1966;341:11-7.
15. Raza M, Al-shabanah OA, El-Hadiyah TM, Al-Majed AA. Effects of prolonged vigabatrin treatment on haematological and biochemical parameters in plasma, liver and kidney of swiss albino mice. Sci Pharm 2002;701:135-45.
16. Perumal SR, Ignacimuthu S, Raja PD. Preliminary screening of ethnomedicinal plants from India. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2008;12:1-7.
17. Jagatheeswari D, Deepa J, Sheik HJA, Ranganathan P. Acalypha indica L-An important medicinal plant: A review of its traditional uses and pharmacological properties. Int J Res Bot 2013;1:19-22.
18. Manisha M, Tanushree B, Bhaskar B, Anita P. Antidiabetic activity of Acalypha indica Linn. on normal and Alloxan induced Diabetic Rats. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2011;3(3):51-4.
19. Leela K, Chitra V, Soujanya RJ. Anti arthritic activity of whole plant Acalypha indica on type ii collagen induced arthritis in wistar rats. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2011;3:99.
20. Vinoth RR, Ramanathan T, Savitha S. Studies on wound healing property of coastal medicinal plants. J Biosci Tech 2009;1(1):39-44.
21. Sathya M, Kokilavani R, Anantha Teepa KS. Acute and Subacute toxicity studies of ethanolic extract of Acalypha indica Linn in male wistar albino rats. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2012;5(1):97-100.
22. Flanagan RJ, Dunk L. Haematological toxicity of drugs used in psychiatry. Hum Psychopharmacol 2008;23:27-41.
23. Bhuvaneswari P, Krishnakumari S. Nephroprotective effects of ethanolic extract of Sesamum indicum seeds (Linn.) in streptozotocin induced diabetic male albino rats. Int J Green Pharm 2012;6(4):330-5.