PREVALENCE AND RISK FACTORS OF GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE (GERD) IN ADULT KASHMIRI POPULATION
Objective: The study was conducted with the objective of studying the prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and to study various factors associated with it in adult Kashmiri population.
Methods: It was a community based prospective cross-sectional observational study conducted by the Department of Medicine and Gastroenterology, GMC Srinagar over a period of 24 mo upon native Kashmiris from urban as well as rural areas as a study group. A total of 2600 subjects above the age of 18 y were studied and the overall prevalence of disease was calculated and also the associated (risk) factors were looked for.
Results: The overall prevalence of 20.3% was seen in the study population with female gender being more prone to the development of disease (p<0.001). Other factors of greater significance included body mass index (BMI), smoking, physical activity, intake of spicy foods, posture after meals, dinner to sleep time, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) intake and some underlying ailments like asthma and history of abdominal surgery.
Conclusion: The overall prevalence of GERD in Kashmiri community is 20.3% with females being more prone with a definite role of factors like BMI, smoking, physical activity, posture after meals, dinner to sleep time interval, intake of spicy foods, drugs and also the co-morbidities.
2. Eisen G. The epidemiology of gastroesophageal reflux disease: what we know and what we need to know. Am J Gastroenterol 2001;96:16-8.
3. Sleisenger and Fordtran: Textbook 9th Edition. Chapter 43; 2010. p. 707-15.
4. Nouraie M, Razjouyan H, Assady M, Malekzadeh R, Nasseri Moghaddam S. Epidemiology of gastroesophageal reflux symptoms in Tehran, Iran: a population-based telephone survey. Arch Iran Med 2007;10:289-94.
5. Wong WM, Lam KF, Lai KC, Hui WM, Hu WH, Lam CL, et al. A validated symptoms questionnaire (Chinese GERDQ) for the diagnosis of gastrooesophageal reflux disease in the Chinese population. Alimen Pharma Ther 2003;17:1407-13.
6. Hansen JM, Wildner Christensen M, Schaf falitzky de Muckadell OB. Gastroesophageal reflux symptoms in a danish population: a proÂspective follow-up analysis of symptoms, quality of life, and health-care use. Am J Gastroenterol 2009;104:2394-403.
7. Kumar S, Sharma S, Norboo T, Dolma D, Norboo A, Stobdan T, et al. Population-based study to assess prevalence and risk factors of gastroesophageal reflux disease in a high altitude area. Indian J Gastroenterol 2011;30:135-43.
8. Sharma PK, Ahuja V, Madan K, Gupta S, Raizada A, Sharma MP. Prevalence, severity, and risk factors of symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux disease among employees of a large hospital in northern India. Indian J Gastroenterol 2011;30:128-34.
9. Locke 3rd GR, Talley NJ, Fett SL, Zinsmeister AR, Melton 3rd LJ. Prevalence and clinical spectrum of gastroesophageal reflux: a population-based study in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Gastroenterology 1997;112:1448-56.
10. Dean BB, Crawley JA, Schmitt CM, Wong J, Ofman JJ. The burden of illness of gastroâ€oesophageal reflux disease: impact on work productivity. Alimen Pharma Ther 2003;17:1309-17.
11. Klauser AG, Schindlbeck NE, MÃ¼ller Lissner SA. Symptoms in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Lancet 1990;335:205-8.
12. Stanghellini V. Three-month prevalence rates of gastrointestinal symptoms and the influence of demographic factors: results from the Domestic/International gastroenterology surveillance study (DIGEST). Scandinavian J Gastroenterol 1999;34:20-8.
13. Ho KY, Lim LS, Goh WT, Lee JM. The prevalence of gastrooesophageal reflux has increased in Asia: a longitudinal study in the community. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2001;16:132.
14. Wong WM, Lai KC, Lam KF, Hui WM, Hu WH, Lam CL, et al. Prevalence, clinical spectrum and health care utilization of gastroâ€oesophageal reflux disease in a Chinese population: a populationâ€based study. Alimenpharma Ther 2003;18:595-604.
15. Am Cho YS, Choi MG, Jeong JJ, Chung WC, Lee IS, Kim SW, et al. Prevalence and clinical spectrum of gastroesophageal reflux: a population-based study in Asan-si, Korea. Am J Gastroenterol 2005r;100:747-53.
16. Valle C, Broglia F, Pistorio A, Tinelli C, Perego M. Prevalence and impact of symptoms suggestive of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Digest Dis Sci 1999;44:1848-52.
17. Moshkowitz M, Horowitz N, Halpern Z, Santo E. Gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms: prevalence, sociodemographics and treatment patterns in the adult Israeli population. World J Gastroenterol: WJG 2011;17:1332.
18. Chen JH, Wang HY, Lin HH, Wang CC, Wang LY. Prevalence and determinants of gastroesophageal reflux symptoms in adolescents. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2014;29:269-75.
19. Kumar S, Shivalli S. Prevalence, perceptions and profile of gastroesophageal reflux disease in a rural population of North Bihar. Nat J Commun Med 2014;5:214-8.
20. Moraes Filho JP, Chinzon D, Eisig JN, Hashimoto CL, Zaterka S. Prevalence of heartburn and gastroesophageal reflux disease in the urban Brazilian population. Arquivos de Gastroenterol 2005;42:122-7.
21. Ponce J, Vegazo O, Beltran B, JimÃ©nez J, Zapardiel J, Calle D, et al. Prevalence of gastroâ€oesophageal reflux disease in Spain and associated factors. Alimen Pharma Ther 2006;23:175-84.
22. Li YM, Du J, Zhang H, Yu CH. Epidemiological investigation in outpatients with symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux from the department of medicine in zhejiang province, East China. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2008;23:283-9.
23. Lazebnik LB, Masharova AA, Bordin DS, Vasil'ev I, Tkachenko EI, Abdulkhakov RA, et al. Multicentre study" Epidemiology of gastroesophageal reflux disease in Russia"(MEGRE): first results. Eksperimental'naia i klinicheskaia gastroenterologist. Exp Clin Gastroenterol 2009;6:4-12.
24. Pandeya N, Green AC, Whiteman DC, Australian Cancer Study. Prevalence and determinants of frequent gastroesophageal reflux symptoms in the Australian community. Dis Esoph 2012;25:573-83.
25. Diaz Rubio M, Moreno Elolaâ€Olaso C, Rey E, Locke GR, Rodriguezâ€Artalejo F. Symptoms of gastroâ€oesophageal reflux: prevalence, severity, duration and associated factors in a spanish population. Alimen Pharma Ther 2004;19:95-105.
26. Ã‡ela L, Kraja B, Hoti K, ToÃ§i E, Muja H, Roshi E, et al. Lifestyle characteristics and gastroesophageal reflux disease: a population-based study in Albania. Gastroenterol Res Practice 2013. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/936792
27. Butt AK, Hashemy I. Risk factors and prescription patterns of gastroesophageal reflux disease: HEAL study in Pakistan. J Pak Med Assoc 2014;64:751-7.
28. El-Serag HB, Sonnenberg A. Opposing time trends of peptic ulcer and reflux disease. Gut 1998;43:327-33.
29. El-Serag HB, Graham DY, Satia JA, Rabeneck L. Obesity is an independent risk factor for GERD symptoms and erosive esophagitis. Am J Gastroenterol 2005;100:1243-50.
30. Lagergren J, BergstroÌˆm R, NyreÌn O. Association between body mass and adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and gastric cardia. Annals Intern Med 1999;130:883-90.
31. Friedenberg FK, Xanthopoulos M, Foster GD, Richter JE. The association between gastroesophageal reflux disease and obesity. Am J Gastroenterol 2008;103:2111-22.
32. Orenstein SR, Shalaby TM, Barmada MM, Whitcomb DC. Genetics of gastroesophageal reflux disease: a review. J Ped Gastroenterol Nut 2002;34:506-10.
33. Locke GR, Talley NJ, Fett SL, Zinsmeister AR, Melton LJ. Risk factors associated with symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux. Am J Med 1999;106:642-9.
34. Wang JH, Luo JY, Dong L, Gong J, Tong M. Epidemiology of gastroesophageal reflux disease: a general population-based study in Xiâ€™an of Northwest China. World J Gastroenterol 2004;10:1647-51.
35. Chen T, Lu M, Wang X, Yang Y, Zhang J, Jin L, et al. Prevalence and risk factors of gastroesophageal reflux symptoms in a Chinese retiree cohort. BMC Gastroenterol 2012;12:161.
36. YÃ¶nem O, Sivri B, Ozdemir L, Nadir I, Yuksel S, Uygun Y. Gastroesophageal reflux disease prevalence in the city of Sivas. Turkish J Gastroenterol 2013;24:303-10.