EXPLORING THE COMPETENCE OF PHYTOCHEMICAL COMPOUNDS TO COMBAT ANTHRACNOSE DISEASE OF CUCUMBER -AN IN SILICO APPROACH
Keywords:Anthracnose, Colletotrichum lagenarium, Melanin, Scytalone dehydratase, Phytochemical
Objective: Anthracnose is one of the diseases of cucumber caused by the fungus Colletotrichum lagenarium. The enzymes of fungal melanin biosynthesis pathway act as a potential target for the synthetic fungicides. The present study aims to identify the rational phytochemical compound that exhibits inhibitory activity towards a key enzyme scytalone dehydratase (SCD) of melanin biosynthesis pathway.
Methods: Phytochemical compounds with antifungal activity were screened from the conventionally used medicinal plants and docked with the target enzyme SCD.
Results: The interaction amongst phytocompounds and the target SCD were evaluated. Five out of 20 compounds exhibited higher binding affinity compared to that of synthetic fungicide carpropamid.
Conclusion: The current study revealed that the compounds exhibiting significant interaction with SCD might act as an efficient fungicide for the control of anthracnose disease of cucumber.
Bates DM, Robinson RW, Jeffrey C. Biology and utilization of the Cucurbitaceae. Comstock. Cornell University Press:United States;1990.
Horst RK. Westcott's Plant Disease Handbook. Springer:New York;2013.
Agrios GN. Plant Pathology. Academic Press;1988.
Takano Y, Kikuchi T, Kubo Y, Hamer JE, Mise K, Furusawa I. The Colletotrichum lagenarium MAP kinase gene CMK1 regulates diverse aspects of fungal pathogenesis. J Mol Plant Microbe Interact 2000;13:374-83.
Kubo Y, Suzuki K, Furusawa I, Ishida N, Yamamoto M. Relation of appressorium pigmentation and penetration of nitrocellulose membranes by Colletotrichum lagenarium. J Phytopathology 1982;72:498-501.
Howard RJ, Ferrari MA. Role of melanin in appressorium formation. J Exp Mycol 1989;13:403-18.
Chen Z, Nunes MA, Silva MC, Rodrigues CJ. Appressorium turgor pressure of Colletotrichum kahawae might have a role in coffee cuticle penetration. J Mycologia 2004;96:1199-208.
Fujii I, Mori Y, Watanabe A, Kubo Y, Tsuji G, Ebizuka Y. Enzymatic synthesis of 1,3,6,8-tetrahydroxynaphthalene solely from malonyl coenzyme A by a fungal iterative type I polyketide synthase PKS1. J Biochemistry 2000;39:8853-58.
Bell AA, Wheeler MH. Biosynthesis and functions of fungal melanins. J Annu Rev Phytopathol 1986;24:411-51.
Wheeler MH. Comparisons of fungal melanin biosynthesis in ascomycetous, imperfect and basidiomycetous fungi. J Transactions of the British Mycological Society 1983;81:29-36.
Kubo Y, Takano Y, Endo N, Yasuda N, Tajima S, Furusawa I. Cloning and Structural Analysis of the Melanin Biosynthesis Gene SCD1 Encoding Scytalone Dehydratase in Colletotrichum lagenarium. J Applied and Environmental Microbiology 1986;62:4340-4.
Kurahashi Y. Melanin biosynthesis inhibitors (mbis) for control of Rice blast. J Pestic Outlook 2001;12:32-5.
Prince L, Prabakaran P. Antifungal activity of medicinal plants against plant pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum falcatum. Asian J Plant Sci Res 2011;1:84-7.
Tapwal A, Nisha, Garg S, Gautam N, Kumar R. In Vitro Antifungal Potency of Plant Extracts Against Five Phytopathogens. J Braz Arch Biol Technol 2011;54:1093-8.
Duraipandiyan V, Ignacimuthu S. Antifungal activity of traditional medicinal plants from Tamil Nadu, India. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2011;204-215.
Park IK, Kim J, Lee YS, Shin SC. In vivo fungicidal activity of medicinal plant extracts against six phytopathogenic fungi. Int J Pest Management 2008;54:63-8.
http://www. expasy. org/
http://blast. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/Blast. cgi
http://www. pymol. org
http://spdbv. vital-it. ch/disclaim. html
http://nihserver. mbi. ucla. edu/SAVES/
http://www. modelling. leeds. ac. uk/qsitefinder/
http://pubchem. ncbi. nlm. nih. gov/.