• Dhary Alewy Almashhadany Dhary Alewy Al-Mashhadany, Knowledge University, College of Science, Department of Pathological Analysis, Kurdistan Region, Erbil, Iraq


Objective: This work was connected to screen Helicobacter pylori among human in Erbil Governorate by using stool antigen test (SAT).

Methods: In a clean and sterile container, three hundred stool samples were collected from both sexes during the period from July-December 2017. Samples were collected from 150 males at the rural and an urban area in equal number, similarly 150 females same areas. The collected samples were tested in Microbiology Laboratory, Department of Pathological Analysis using One-Step H. pylori Antigen Test Kit.

Results: The obtained results shown that the prevalence of H. pylori in total samples were (11.3%). The rate of infection among females were (12.7%) compared to (10.0%) of male infection rate. According to the age wise of the patients (11-20, 51-60 and above 60 y) results showed that the H. pylori antigen rates were (16.3%, 11.9%, and 13.6%) respectively that mean the high rate of infection was varied. According to habitation, the high rate of H. pylori among males was 12.0% and 8.0% in rural and urban area consecutively. While the occurrence rate of H. pylori antigen among female was high 14.7% in rural area, compared to 10.7% in the female of the urban area. The proportion of H. pylori antigen rate in September, December and October were (16.0%, 14.0%, and 12.0%) respectively.

Conclusion: From this study, we concluded that the prevalence of H. pylori among human in Erbil Governorate was high, and the infection takes place in the early years of life. The significance of public health risks was discussed.

Keywords: Application, Stool Antigen Test, H. pylori, Human, Erbil Governorate, urdistan region, Iraq


Download data is not yet available.


1. Abdel Latif ME, Shahin R, Abdrabou RM, Shawqy A, El-Ghadban HM, Arafa M, et al. Value of additional corpus biopsy for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori in atrophic gastritis. J Gastrol Hepatol Dis 2016;2:108.
2. Rana R, Wang SL, Li J, Wang YX, Rao QW, Yang CQ. Helicobacter pylori infection: a recent approach to diagnosis and management. J Biomed 2017;2:45-56.
3. Gonzalez Pons M, Soto Salgado M, Sevilla J, Marquez-Lespier JM, Morgan D, Perez CM, et al. Seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori in hispanics living in puerto rico: a population-based study. Helicobacte 2018;23:e12453.
4. Queralt N, Bartolome R, Araujo R. Detection of Helicobacter pylori DNA in human feces and water with different levels of fecal pollution in the north-east of spain. J Appl Microbiol 2005;98:889-95.
5. Vale FF, Vitor JMB. Transmission pathway of Helicobacter pylori: does food play a role in rural and urban areas? Int J Food Microl 2010;138:1–12.
6. Zamani M, Vahedi A, Maghdouri Z, Shokri-Shirvani J. Role of food in the environmental transmission of Helicobacter pylori. Caspian J Intern Med 2017;8:146–52.
7. Boehnke KF, Brewster RK, Sanchez BN, Valdivieso M, Bussalleu A, Guevara M, Saenz CG, et al. An assessment of drinking water contamination with Helicobacter pylori in Lima, Peru. Helicobacter 2018;32:e12462.
8. Chey WD, Leontiadis GI, Howden CW, Moss SF. Treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection. Am J Gastroenterol 2017;112:212–38.
9. Doulberis M, Kotronis G, Thomann R, Polyzos SA, Boziki M, Gialamprinou D, et al. Impact of Helicobacter pylori on Alzheimer disease: what do we know so far? review. Helicobacter 2018;23:e12454, 1-6.
10. Jemilohun AC, Otegbayo JA. Helicobacter pylori infection: past, present, and future. Pan African Med J 2016;23:216.
11. Bjorkman DJ. High worldwide variation in the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection. NEJM J Watch 2018;47:868.
12. Falsafi T, Valizadeh N, Najafi M, Ehsani A, Khani A, Landarani Z, et al. Culture of Helicobacter pylori from stool samples in children. Can J Microbiol 2007;53:411-6.
13. Mayass SMA. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in human and food and study the effect of garlic extract on isolated bacteria in thamar province. M. Sc. thesis in Microbiology, Department of Biology, Faculty of Applied Science, Thamar University, Thamar, Yemen; 2013.
14. Kienesberger S, Perez Perez GI, Olivares AZ, Bardhan P, Sarker SA, Hasan KZ, et al. When are Helicobacter pylori acquired in populations in developing countries? A birth-cohort study in Bangladeshi children. Gut Microbes 2018;1:1-12.
15. Ashgar SS. Helicobacter Pylori diagnosis by stool antigen ELISA and rapid test. J Appl Med Sci 2013;4:61-6.
16. Namakin K, Nejad FB. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in asymptomatic children in birjand, Eastern Iran. Inter J Ped 2014;2:55-63.
17. Yucel T, Aygin D, Sen S, Yucel O. The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori and related factors among University student in Turkey. Japan J Inf Dis 2008;61:179-83.
18. Zhang DH, zhouly LY, Lin SR, Ding SG, Huang YH, Guf F, et al. Recent changes in the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection among children and adults in high-or-low–incidence regions of gastric cancer in China. Chin Med J Eng l2009;122:1759-63.
19. Iranikhah A, Ghadir MR, Sarkeshikian S, Hosein Saneian H, Heiari A, Mahari M. Stool antigen tests for the detection of Helicobacter Pylori in children. Iran J Ped 2013;23:138-42.
20. Sýkora J, Siala K, Varvarovska J, Pazdiora P, Pomahacova R, Huml M. Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection in asymptomatic children: a prospective population-based study from the Czech Republic. Application of a monoclonal-based antigen-in-stool enzyme immunoassay. Helicobacter 2009;4:286-97.
21. Daugule I, Karklina D, Remberga S, Rumba-Rozenfelde I. Helicobacter pylori infection and risk factors in relation to allergy in children. Pediatr Gastroenterol Hepatol Nutr 2017;20:216-21.
22. Moon HW, Lee SY, Hur M, Yun YM. Characteristics of Helicobacter pylori-seropositive subjects according to the stool antigen test findings: a prospective study. Korean J Intern Med 2018;33: 893–901.
23. El-Shabrawi M, El-Aziz NA, El-Adly TZ, Hassanin F, Eskander A, Abou-Zekri M, et al. Stool antigen detection versus 13C-urea breath test for non-invasive diagnosis of pediatric Helicobacter pylori infection in a limited resource setting. Arch Med Sci 2018;14:69-73.
24. Elshiekh HRM, Elrabat AM, Sultan AM, Zaky MM. Bacteriological investigation of Helicobacter pylori infections in patients with gastric and duodenal ulcer. Int J Curr Microbiol Appl Sci 2017;6:2753-65.
25. Faisal N, UL Haq MM, Mbbs HS, Ashraf P, Esmail JH. Helicobacter pylori infection; dyspeptic patients undergoing endoscopy; a hospital-based study. Professional Med J 2012;19:202-7.
26. Badr MA, El-Saadany HF, Ali ASA, Abdelrahman D. Study of H. Pylori infection in children with recurrent abdominal pain attending the pediatrics outpatient clinic of zagazig university hospitals. J Egypt Soc Parasit 2012;42:735–40.
27. Naji AS, A-Ameri GA, Ekadasi MN, Hanash S, Wahid AM, Ali WAM, et al. Comparison of stool antigen and blood antibody test methods for detection of Helicobacter pylori infection and the risk factors. Int J Curr Microbiol Appl Sci 2014;3:118-27.
28. Al-Sinani S, Al-Mulaabed SW, Al-Naamani K, Al-Sharji H. Helicobacter Pylori infection in omani children. Helicobacter 2017;22:306-11.
29. Awuku YA, Simpson DL, Alhassan IK, Tuoyire DA, Afaa T, Adu P. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection among children living in a rural setting in sub-saharan Africa. BMC Public Health 2017;17:1-6.
30. Sharma M, Mehta P, Vohra P. Incidence of Helicobacter Pylori in patients with gastroduodenal disorders. Inno J Med Health Sci 2013;3:10-5.
31. Miernyk KM, Bulkow LR, Gold BD, Bruce MG, Hurlburt DH, Griffin PM, et al. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori among alaskans: factors associated with infection and comparison of urea breath test and anti-Helicobacter pylori IgG antibodies. Helicobacter 2018;23: e12482.1-8.
193 Views | 364 Downloads
How to Cite
Almashhadany, D. A. “APPLICATION OF STOOL ANTIGEN TEST FOR MONITORING HELICOBACTER PYLORI AMONG HUMAN IN ERBIL GOVERNORATE, KURDISTAN REGION/IRAQ”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 10, no. 11, Nov. 2018, pp. 49-53, doi:10.22159/ijpps.2018v10i11.28872.
Original Article(s)