• Pensia E. Mapunda Department of Conservation Biology, University of Dodoma, Tanzania
  • Cosmas Mligo Department of Botany, University of Dar es Salam, Tanzania
  • Herbert V. M. Lyaruu Department of Botany, University of Dar es Salam, Tanzania


Methods: Using standard procedures, Ximenia caffra fruit extracts were determined for ferrous ions chelating ability, nitric oxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging ability. Antiradical activities were assessed using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) in which the fruit extracts were evaluated for the number of antiradical units (AU515), the number of antiradical units per 1 mg of extracts (EAU515) and the total number of antiradical units per 1g of raw fruits (TAU515).

Results: The fruit extracts exhibited significant higher ferrous ion chelating and free radical scavenging capacity compared to synthetic antioxidants (standard). Fruit extracts in early ripening stage (ERS) exhibited stronger ion chelation, nitric oxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging ability with low effective fruit extract concentration required to reduce free radicals by 50% (EC50) that were 14, 25 and 30µg/ml respectively than the late ripening stage (LRS) extracts. The fruit extracts also showed high AU515, EAU515 and TAU515. The values of AU515 ranged from 0.93 to 0.95, while EAU515 from 78.30 to 79.34 and TAU515 ranged from 19762.46 to 23821.23 of the extracts in LRS and ERS respectively.

Conclusion: Based on these observations Ximenia caffra is potentially beneficial to human health due to its strong ability to scavenge free radicals. Its utilization can potentially reduce the risk of degenerative diseases to human beings.

Keywords: Keywords, Antiradical activity, iron chelation, radical scavenging, ripening stages, Ximenia caffra


Download data is not yet available.


1. Bhattacharya S. Reactive oxygen species and cellular defense system. Free radicals in human health and disease, Springer India, New Delhi; 2015. p. 17-29.
2. Boeing H, Bechthold A, Bub A, Ellinger S, Haller D, Kroke A, et al. Critical review: vegetables and fruit in the prevention of chronic diseases. Eur J Nutr 2012;51:637–63.
3. Sireesha K, Sailaja Rao P. Oxidative stress and diabetes: an overview. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2015;8:15-9.
4. Gülçin I, Bursal E, Şehitoglu MH, Bilsel M, Goren AC. Polyphenol contents and antioxidant activity of lyophilized aqueous extract of propolis from Erzurum, Turkey. Food Chem Toxicol 2010;48:2227-38.
5. Sun YX, Kennedy JF. Antioxidant activities of different polysaccharide conjugates (CRPs) isolated from the fruiting bodies of Chroogomphis rutilus (Schaeff: Fr.) OK miller. Carbohydr Polym 2010;82:510-4.
6. Vaidya X, Bhati DS, Sharma P, Agnihotri A. Evaluation of phytochemicals and free radical scavenging behavior in different parts of Syzygium cumini. Int J Curr Pharm Res 2017;9:180-5.
7. Ruffo CK, Birnie A, Tengnas BO. Edible wild plants of Tanzania. (Vol 27). Regional Land Management Unit/Sida; 2002.
8. Orwa C, Mutua A, Kindt R, Jamnadass R, Anthony S. Agroforestry tree database: a tree reference and selection guide version 4.0. World Agroforestry Centre ICRAF, Nairobi, KE; 2009.
9. Zhen J, Guo Y, Villani T, Carr S, Brendler T, Mumbengegwi DR, et al. Phytochemical analysis and anti-inflammatory activity of the extracts of the African medicinal plant Ximenia caffra. J Anal Methods Chem 2015;1:1-9.
10. Bruschi P, Morganti M, Mancini M, Signorini MA. Traditional healers and laypeople: a qualitative and quantitative approach to local knowledge on medicinal plants in Muda (Mozambique). J Ethnopharmacol 2011;138:543-63.
11. Ayoub Z, Mehta A. Medicinal plants as potential source of antioxidant agents: a review. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2018;11:50-6.
12. Maurya SK, Singh AK, Seth A. Potential medicinal plants for lymphatic filariasis: a review. J Crit Rev 2015;2:1-6.
13. Pyo YH, Lee TC, Logendra L, Rosen RT. Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of swiss chard (Beta vulgaris subspecies cycla) extracts. Food Chem 2004;85:19-26.
14. Chivandi E. In vitro and in vivo chemical characterization of kigelia africana, mimusops zeyheri, terminalia sericea and ximenia caffra nuts (PhD Thesis) South Africa: University of the Witwatersrand; 2012.
15. Addai ZR, Abdullah A, Mutalib SA. Effect of extraction solvents on the phenolic content and antioxidant properties of two papaya cultivars. J Med Plants Res 2013;7:3354-9.
16. Bhandari SR, Jung BD, Baek HY, Lee YS. Ripening-dependent changes in phytonutrients and antioxidant activity of red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) fruits cultivated under open-field conditions. Hort Sci 2013;48:1275–82.
17. Xie G, Wang J, Xu X, Wang R, Zhou X, Liu Z. Effect of different ripening stages on bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of wild Rosa laevigata michx. Food Sci Technol 2016;36:396-400.
18. Dinis TC, Madeira VM, Almeida LM. Action of phenolic derivatives (acetaminophen, salicylate, and 5-aminosalicylate) as inhibitors of membrane lipid peroxidation and as peroxyl radical scavengers. Arch Biochem Biophys 1994;315:161-9.
19. Marcocci L, Maguire JJ, Droy Lefaix MT, Packer L. The nitric oxide-scavenging properties of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1994;15:748–55.
20. Halliwell B, Gutteridge JMC, Aruoma OI. The deoxyribose method: a sample test tube assay for determination of rate constants for reactions of hydroxyl radicals. Anal Biochem 1987;165:215-9.
21. Gao QH, Wu PT, Liu JR, Wu CS, Parry JW, Wang M. Physico-chemical properties and antioxidant capacity of different jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) cultivars grown in loess plateau of China. Sci Hortic 2011;130:67-72.
22. Altemimi A, Lakhssassi N, Baharlouei A, Watson DG, Lightfoot DA. Phytochemicals: extraction, isolation, and identification of bioactive compounds from plant extracts. Plants 2017;6:42.
23. Brand Willium W, Cvelier ME, Berset C. Use of free radical methods to evaluate antiradical activity. Technol Innovation 1995;28:25-30.
24. Qiao D, Ke C, Hu B, Luo J, Ye H, Sun Y, et al. Antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from Hyriopsis cumingii. Carbohydr Polym 2009;78:199-204.
25. Wink DA, Kasprzak KS, Maragos CM, Elespuri RK, Misra M, Dunams TM, et al. DNA deaminating ability and genotoxicity of nitric oxide and its progenitors. Science 1991;254:1001–3.
26. Dragsted LO, Krath B, Ravn Haren G, Vogel UB, Vinggaard AM, Jensen PB, et al. Biological effects of fruit and vegetables. Proc Nutr Soc 2006;65:61-7.
27. Aires A, Fernandes C, Carvalho R, Bennett RN, Saavedra MJ, Rosa EAS. Seasonal effects on bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of six economically important brassica vegetables. Molecules 2011;16:6816-32.
28. Yang Y, Sun Y, Yi W, Li Y, Fan C, Xin Z, et al. A review of melatonin as a suitable antioxidant against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury and clinical heart diseases. J Pineal Res 2014;57:357-66.
29. Sutar RC, Kasture SB, Kalaichelvan VK. Evaluation of the anticonvulsant activity of leaf extracts of Holoptelea integrifolia (Roxb.) planch. Int J Appl Pharm 2014;6:6-8.
30. Raaman N. Antioxidant activities and phytochemical analysis of methanol extract of leaves of Hygrophila auriculata (Schumach) heine. Int J Curr Pharm Res 2017;7:100–5.
31. Tirzitis G, Bartosz G. Determination of antiradical and antioxidant activity: basic principles and new insights. Act Biochim Pol 2010;57:139-42.
32. Ding P, Syazwani S. Physicochemical quality, antioxidant compounds and activity of MD-2 pineapple fruit at five ripening stages. Int Food Res J 2015;23:549-55.
33. Melendez-Martinez AJ, Fraser PD, Bramley PM. Accumulation of health-promoting phytochemicals in wild relatives of tomato and their contribution to in vitro antioxidant activity. Phytochemistry 20107;1:1104-4.
34. Luczaj W, Skrzydlewska E. Antioxidative properties of black tea. Prev Med 2005;40:910-8.
35. Ohmori R, Iwamoto T, Tago M, Takeo T, Unno T, Itakura H, et al. Antioxidant activity of various teas against free radicals and LDL oxidation. Lipids 2005;40:849-53.
36. Sroka Abcdefg Z. The screening analysis of the antiradical activity of some plant extracts. Postepy Hig Med Dosw 2006;60:563-70.
37. Sroka Z, Zbikowska B, HÅ‚adyszowski J. The antiradical activity of some selected flavones and flavonols. Experimental and quantum mechanical study. J Mol Model 2015;21:307.
89 Views | 0 Downloads
How to Cite
Mapunda, P., C. Mligo, and H. Lyaruu. “EVALUATION OF FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING ABILITY AND ANTIRADICAL ACTIVITIES OF XIMENIA CAFFRA FRUIT EXTRACTS AT DIFFERENT RIPENING STAGES”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 11, no. 1, Jan. 2019, pp. 55-60, doi:10.22159/ijpps.2019v11i1.29065.
Original Article(s)