• Pensia E. Mapunda Department of Conservation Biology, University of Dodoma, Tanzania
  • Cosmas Mligo Department of Botany, University of Dar es Salam, Tanzania
  • Herbert V. M. Lyaruu Department of Botany, University of Dar es Salam, Tanzania


Objective: To evaluate the free radical scavenging ability and antiradical activities of Ximenia caffra fruit extracts in their different ripening stages.

Methods: Using standard procedures, Ximenia caffra fruit extracts were determined for ferrous ions chelating ability, nitric oxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging ability. Antiradical activities were assessed using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) in which the fruit extracts were evaluated for the number of antiradical units (AU515), the number of antiradical units per 1 mg of extracts (EAU515) and the total number of antiradical units per 1g of raw fruits (TAU515).

Results: The fruit extracts exhibited significant higher ferrous ion chelating and free radical scavenging capacity compared to synthetic antioxidants (standard). Fruit extracts in early ripening stage (ERS) exhibited stronger ion chelation, nitric oxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging ability with low effective fruit extract concentration required to reduce free radicals by 50% (EC50) that were 14, 25 and 30µg/ml respectively than the late ripening stage (LRS) extracts. The fruit extracts also showed high AU515, EAU515 and TAU515. The values of AU515 ranged from 0.93 to 0.95, while EAU515 from 78.30 to 79.34 and TAU515 ranged from 19762.46 to 23821.23 of the extracts in LRS and ERS respectively.

Conclusion: Based on these observations Ximenia caffra is potentially beneficial to human health due to its strong ability to scavenge free radicals. Its utilization can potentially reduce the risk of degenerative diseases to human beings.

Keywords: Keywords, Antiradical activity, iron chelation, radical scavenging, ripening stages, Ximenia caffra


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How to Cite
Mapunda, P. E., C. Mligo, and H. V. M. Lyaruu. “EVALUATION OF FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING ABILITY AND ANTIRADICAL ACTIVITIES OF XIMENIA CAFFRA FRUIT EXTRACTS AT DIFFERENT RIPENING STAGES”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 11, no. 1, Jan. 2019, pp. 55-60, doi:10.22159/ijpps.2019v11i1.29065.
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