PHARMACOGNOSTIC STANDARDIZATION, PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND TLC FINGERPRINTING OF THE BARK OF CASCABELA THEVETIA L.
Objectives: In this study, systematic pharmacognostic study and preliminary phytochemical screening of the bark of Cascabela thevetia L. were carried out.
Methods: The selected plant part was collected, processed and stored in an airtight container. From the bark different pharmacognostic studies like macroscopic and microscopic evaluation, physicochemical parameters, fluorescence analysis were done. Powdered bark was successively extracted by petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol using a Soxhlet apparatus and finally macerated with the hydro-alcoholic solvent system (30:70). The preliminary phytochemical analysis and thin layer chromatography of the extracts were done to find the nature and number of the different phytoconstituents present.
Results: Transverse microscopy reveals the presence of crystal oxalate, cork cell, starch granules, vascular bundle, phloem fiber, parenchyma cells, and collenchyma cells. Powder microscopy also showed the presence of cork cell, fiber and calcium oxalate crystal. Results obtained in different physicochemical analysis like total ash, acid insoluble ash, water soluble ash, alcohol-soluble extractive, water-soluble extractive, and moisture content were 8.67%, 0.83%, 5.33%, 4.53%, 12.27%, and 7.83% respectively. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of alkaloid, flavonoid, triterpenoid, phytosterol, tannin, saponin, anthraquinone, carbohydrate and fatty acid in the different extracts. TLC (Thin Layer Chromatography) study revealed 4 spots in petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts and 3 spots in the Hydro-alcoholic extract with different solvent systems.
Conclusion: The results obtained from the study will provide a reliable basis for identification, purity, and quality of the plant.
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