• Nwokolo Lorreta Nwakaego Department of Medical Biochemistry, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus, Enugu State Nigeria
  • Onyekwelu Kenechukwu Chibuike Department of Medical Biochemistry, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus, Enugu State Nigeria
  • Ene Martin Chukwugekwu Department of Chemical Pathology, University of Nigeria Enugu Campus Medical Centre, Enugu State Nigeria
  • Adilieje Chioma Marylyn Department of Medical Biochemistry, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus, Enugu State Nigeria
  • Ezechukwu Ifunanya Ngozi Department of Medical Biochemistry, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus, Enugu State Nigeria
  • Ezeh Richard Chukwunonye Department of Medical Biochemistry, ESUT College of Medicine, Parklane, Enugu Nigeria



Uvaria chamae, DPPH, Superoxide radical, Hydroxyl radical


Objective: This study investigated the in vitro antioxidant and free radical potentials of methanol extracts of Uvaria chamae leaves and roots.

Methods: Fresh Uvaria chamae leaves and roots were air dried, pulverized and extracted using methanol. Phytochemical, total phenolic, flavonoids, antioxidant and tannin contents, DPPH, hydroxyl, and superoxide radical scavenging properties of the extracts were determined using standard methods.

Results: In vitro antioxidant potentials revealed that methanol extract of Uvaria chamae leaves contains vitamin A (4871±79.21 I. U) and vitamin C (1.72±0.02%) while the root extract contains vitamin A (673.28±0.00I. U) and vitamin C (1.66±0.01%). Both extracts had equal contents of vitamin E (8.83±0.04 mg/100g). The leaf extract scavenged 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) in a concentration dependent manner with the correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.839 and effective concentration (EC50) of 31.19 µg/ml, while the root extract scavenged DPPH with R2 of0.778 and EC50 of 14.00 µg/ml. The leaf and root extracts scavenged superoxide radical and hydroxyl radical with EC50 of 5.93 µg/ml and 719.45 µg/ml; 107.89 µg/ml and 912.01 µg/ml respectively compared to the EC50 of ascorbic standard (30.27 µg/ml) and EC50 of vitamin E standard (106.66µg/ml) respectively. The leaf extract showed significantly higher (p<0.05) anti radical power (ARP) of superoxide (0.17) compared to the root extract (0.0014) and the root extract showed significantly higher (p<0.05) ARP of DPPH (0.071) compared to the leaf extract (0.032).

Conclusion: The leaves and roots of Uvaria chamae are rich in natural antioxidants that can be exploited in the treatment of diseases related to oxidative stress.


Download data is not yet available.


Boxin OU, Dejian H, Maureen AF, Elizabeth KD. Analysis of antioxidant activities of common vegetables employing oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays: a comparative study. J Agric Food Chem 2002;5:223-8.

Inoue M, Sato EF, Nishikawa M, Park AM, Kira Y, Imada I, et al. Mitochondrial generation of reactive oxygen species and its role in aerobic life. Curr Med Chem 2003;10:2495-505.

Capdevila J, Parkhill L, Chacos N, Okita R, Masters BS, Estabrook RW. The oxidative metabolism of arachidonic acid by purified cytochromes P-450. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1981;101:1357-63.

Valko M, Izakovic M, Mazur M, Rhodes CJ, Telser J. Role of oxygen radicals in DNA damage and cancer incidence. Mol Cell Biochem 2004;266:37-56.

Lindahl T. Instability and decay of the primary structure of DNA. Nature 1993;362:709-15.

Wagner BA, Buettner GR, Burns CP. Free radical-mediated lipid peroxidation in cells: oxidizability is a function of cell lipid bis-allylic hydrogen content. Biochemistry 1994;33:4449-53.

Ridnour LA, Thomas DD, Mancardi D, Espey MG, Miranda KM, Paolocci N, et al. The chemistry of nitrosative stress induced by nitric oxide and reactive nitrogen oxide species. Putting perspective on stressful biological situations. Biol Chem 2004;385:1-10.

Mahanta M, Mukherjee AK. Neutralisation of lethality, myotoxicity and toxic enzymes of naja kaouthia venom by mimosa pudica root extracts. J Ethnopharmacol 2001;75:55–60.

Ioan C. Methodology for analysis of vegetable drugs. Faculty of Pharma, Eucharest Romania; 1984.

Velioglu YS, Mazza G, Gao L, Oomah BD. Antioxidant activity and total phenolics in selected fruits, vegetables and grain products. J Agric Food Chem 1998;46:4113-7.

Makkar APS, Blumel M, Borowy NK, Becker K. Gravimetric determination of tannins and their correlations with chemical and protein precipitation methods. J Sci Food Agric 1993;61:161-5.

Kumaran A, Karunakaran RJ. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of an aqueous extract of Coleus aromaticus. Food Chem 2006;97:109-14.

Pearson DA. Chemical analysis of food. 7th Edn. Churchill Livinstone Edinburgh, London; 1976.

Gyamfi MA, Yonamine M, Aniya Y. Free-radical scavenging action of medicinal herbs from ghana: Thonningia sanguine on experimentally-induced liver injuries. Gen Pharmacol 1999; 32:661-7.

Elizabeth K, Rao MNA. Oxygen radical scavenging activity of curcumin. Int J Pharm 1990;58:237-40.

Fontana M, Mosca L, Rosei MA. Interaction of enkephalines with oxyradicals. Biochem Pharmacol 2001;61:1253-7.

Marcocci L, Maguire JJ, Droy Lefaix MT, Packer L. The nitric oxide scavenging properties of Ginkgo biloba extract. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1994;201:748-55.

Yadav SB, Tripathi V, Singh RK, Pandey HP. Flavonoid glycosides from Cuscuta reflexa stems and their antioxidant activity. Indian Drugs 2001;38:95-6.

Sam SKG, Senthil KB, Ramachandran S, Saravanan M, Sridhar SK. Antioxidant and wound healing properties of Glycyrrhiza glabra root extract. Indian Drugs 2001;38:355-7.

Morteza Semnani K, Saeedi M, Shahnavaz B. Comparison of antioxidant activity of extract from roots of liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) to commercial antioxidants in 2% hydroquinone cream. J Cosmet Sci 2003;54:551-8.

Ita BN. Antioxidant activity of Cnestis ferruginea and Uvaria chamae seed extracts. Br J Pharm Res 2017;16:1-8.

Chinaka ON, Julius OO, Motunrayo GA. In vitro antioxidant potentials of some herbal plants from Southern Nigeria. J Med Sci 2013;13:56-61.

Kone M, Toure A, Ouattara K, Coulibaly A. Phytochemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of root of uvaria chamae P. Beauv. (Annonaceae) used in the treatment of dysentery in North of Côte d’Ivoire. Int J Pharmacogn Phytochem Res 2015;7:1047-53.



How to Cite

Nwakaego, N. L., O. K. Chibuike, E. M. Chukwugekwu, A. C. Marylyn, E. I. Ngozi, and E. R. Chukwunonye. “IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT AND FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING POTENTIAL OF METHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF UVARIA CHAMAE LEAVES AND ROOTS”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 11, no. 1, Jan. 2019, pp. 67-71, doi:10.22159/ijpps.2019v11i1.29330.



Original Article(s)