EXPLORATION OF MICROORGANISMS AS A POTENTIAL SOURCE OF XANTHINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS: AN UPDATED REVIEW
Nowadays the prevalence of hyperuricemia has significantly increased in which serum uric acid levels are exceeding the normal range. Gout is the predominant clinical implication of the hyperuricemia, but many clinical investigations have confirmed that hyperuricemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), hypertension, diabetes, and many other diseases. The xanthine oxidase (XO) converts hypoxanthine to xanthine and ultimately to uric acid, and the irreversibly accumulated uric acid causes hyperuricemia associated with gout. Hence specific and selective xanthine oxidase inhibitors (XOI) are potentially powerful tools for inactivating target XO in the pathogenic process of hyperuricemia (Gout). The objective of the current study was to overview the various XOI isolated from the microorganisms. Microorganisms have been employed for several decades for the large-scale production of a variety of bio-chemicals ranging from alcohol to antibiotics and as well as enzyme inhibitors. Currently available XOI (allopurinol and febuxostat) for the treatment of gout have been exhibiting serious side effects. Thus, there is a need to search for new molecules to treat hyperuricemia and its associated disorders. At present, microbes have been unexplored in the development of successful products for the management of XO-related diseases. Hence, the present review focused on novel XOI produced from various microbial species such as Actinobacteria, lichens, bacteria, endophytic fungi and mushrooms, which can be expected to play an important role in the ongoing transition from the empirical screening to the real rational drug design.
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