IN VITRO EVALUATION OF THE NON-CYTOTOXIC THYMUS CAPITATUS EXTRACTS INHIBIT BOVINE HERPESVIRUS-1 EXPANSION

Authors

  • Article Has Been Withdraw On Author's Request

Abstract

Objective: Bovine herpes virus type 1 (BHV-1) is an important cofactor in the bovine respiratory disease complex with high health and financial impact because there aren't any available drugs that proved to be fully effective against it. In this study, the cytotoxicity and antiviral activities of the Thymus capitatus extracts were evaluated for the development of new, non toxic and specific anti-herpesvirus agents.

Methods: The aqueous extracts (AE), ethanolic extracts (EE) and essential oil (EO) of the aerial parts of Thymus capitatus were analyzed to determine their chemical compositions by gas chromatography, and high performance liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometry. Their cytotoxicity, and antiviral activities against Bovine Herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) were evaluated by quantifying the reduction of the viral cytopathic effect using Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney cell line with the colorimetric assay. T. capitatus extracts were added at different stages of the viral infection to investigate and better quantify their potential inhibitory effects.

Results: Polyphenols and flavonoids were the major compounds found in T. capitatus EO, EE and AE. The cytotoxic concentrations at 50 % were 48.70, 189 and 289 µg ml-1 for EO, EE and AE respectively. The inhibitor concentrations at 50 % for the EO, EE and AE, were 3.36, 47.80 and 164 μg ml-1, respectively. The selectivity index anti-BHV-1 values were 14.49, 3.95 and 1.81 for EO, EE and AE respectively. Thus the EO extracts were the most efficient antiviral compounds. T. capitatus extracts affect mainly the adsorption of BHV-1 virus to host cells.

Conclusion: T. capitatus extracts inhibit the viral replication by interfering with the early stages of viral adsorption and replication. Thus, T. capitatus is a potential candidate for anti-herpes virus treatment.

Keywords: Thymus capitatus, Cytotoxicity, Antiviral, Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney cell, Bovine herpesvirus type1.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Biswas S, Bandyopadhyay S, Dimri U, Patra PH. Bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1)–a re-emerging concern in livestock: a revisit to its biology, epidemiology, diagnosis, and prophylaxis. Vet Q 2013;33:68–81.

Jones C, Chowdhury S. Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) is an important cofactor in the bovine respiratory disease complex. Vet Clin North Am: Large Anim Pract 2010;26:303–21.

Del Barrio G, Parra F. Evaluation of the antiviral activity of an aqueous extract from Phyllanthus orbicularis. J Ethnopharmacol 2000;72:317–22.

Simoni IC, Manha APS, Sciessere L, Hoe VMH, Takinami VH, Fernandes MJB. Evaluation of the antiviral activity of Brazilian cerrado plants against animal viruses. Virus Rev Res 2007;12:25–31.

Melo FL, Benati FJ, Junior WAR, Mello JCP, Nozaw C, Carvalho Linhares RE. The in vitro antiviral activity of an aliphatic nitro compound from Heteropteris aphrodisiaca. Microbiol Res 2008;163:136–9.

Gupta D, Goel A, Bhatia AK. Studies on antiviral property of Acacia nilotica. J Environ Res Dev 2010;5:141–52.

Pilau MR, Alves SH, Weiblen R, Arenhart S, Cueto AP, Lovato LT. Antiviral activity of the Lippia graveolens (mexican oregano) essential oil and its main compound carvacrol against human and animal viruses. Braz J Microbiol 2011;42:1616–24.

Barros AV, Araújo LM, Oliveira FF de, Conceição AO da, Simoni IC, Fernandes MJ B, et al. In vitro evaluation of the antiviral potential of Guettarda angelica against animal herpesviruses. Acta Sci Vet 2012;40:1068–75.

Fernandes MJB, Barros AV, Melo MS, Simoni IC. Screening of Brazilian plants for antiviral activity against animal herpesviruses. J Med Plants Res 2012;6:2261–5.

Abdallah FM, Sobhy H, Enan G. Evaluation of antiviral activity of selected anise oil as an essential oil against Bovine herpesvirus type-1 in vitro. Global Vet 2013;10:496–9.

Nolkemper S, Reichling J, Stintzing FC, Carle R, Schnitzler P. Antiviral effect of aqueous extracts from species of the Lamiaceae family against herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 in vitro. Planta Med 2006;72:1378–82.

Reichling J, Nolkemper S, Stintzing FC, Schnitzler P. Impact of ethanolic lamiaceae extracts on herpes virus infectivity in cell culture. Forsch Komplementmed 2008;15:313–20.

Schnitzler P, Schuhmacher A, Astani A, Reichling J. Melissa officinalis oil affects infectivity of enveloped herpesviruses. Phytomed 2008;15:734–40.

Behravan J, Ramezani M, Nobandegani FE, Gharaee ME. Antiviral and antimicrobial activity of Thymus transcaspicus essential oil. Pharmacol 2011;1:1190–9.

Jabri–Karoui I, Bettaieb I, Msaada K, Hammami M, Marzouk B. Research on the phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities of Tunisian Thymus capitatus. J Funct Foods 2012;4:66–9.

Boubaker Elandalousi R, Akkari H, B’chir F, Gharbi M, Mhadhbi M, Awadi S, et al. Thymus capitatus from Tunisian arid zone: chemical composition and in vitro anthelmintic effects on Haemonchus contortus. Vet Parasitol 2013;197:374–8.

Reed IJ, Muench H. A simple method of estimating fifty per cent endpoints. Am J Epidemiol 1938;27:493–7.

Chattopadhyay D, Chawla Sarkar M, Chatterjee T, Dey R, Bag P, Chakrabarty S, et al. Recent advancements for the evaluation of antiviral activities of natural products. New Biotechnol 2009;25:347–68.

Mkaddem MG, Romdhane M, Ibrahim H, Ennajar M, Lebrihi A, Mathieu F, et al. Essential oil of Thymus capitatus Hoff. Link. from Matmata, Tunisia: gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis and antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. J Med Food 2009;13:1500–4.

Saei–Dehkordi SS, Tajik H, Moradi M, Khalighi–Sigaroodi F. Chemical composition of essential oils in Zataria multiflora Boiss. from different parts of Iran and their radical scavenging and antimicrobial activity. Food Chem Toxicol 2010;48:1562–7.

Loziene K, Venskutonis PR. Influence of environmental and genetic factors on the stability of essential oil composition of Thymus pulegioides. Biochem Syst Ecol 2005;33:517–25.

Halle W, Göres E. Prediction of LD50 values by cell culture. Pharm 1987;42:245–8.

Bakkali F, Averbeck S, Averbeck D, Idaomar M. Biological effects of essential oils–a review. Food Chem Toxicol 2008;46:446–75.

Matsuo M, Sasaki N, Saga K, Kaneko T. Cytotoxicity of flavonoids toward cultured normal human cells. Biol Pharm Bull 2005;28:253–9.

Schuhmacher A, Reichling J, Schnitzler P. Virucidal effect of peppermint oil on the enveloped viruses herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 in vitro. Phytomed 2003;10:504–10.

Koch C, Reichling J, Schneele J, Schnitzler P. Inhibitory effect of essential oils against herpes simplex virus type 2. Phytomed 2008;15:71–8.

Astani A, Reichling J, Schnitzler P. Screening for antiviral activities of isolated compounds from essential oils. Evidence-Based Complementary Altern Med 2011;44:8–15.

Akula SM, Hurley DJ, Wixon RL, Wang C, Chase CC. Effect of genistein on replication of bovine herpesvirus type 1. Am J Vet Res 2002;63:1124–8.

Nowakowska Z. A review of anti-infective and anti-inflammatory chalcones. Eur J Med Chem 2007;42:125–37.

Özçelik B, Kartal M, Orhan I. Cytotoxicity, antiviral and antimicrobial activities of alkaloids, flavonoids, and phenolic acids. Pharm Biol 2011;49:396–402.

Andres A, Donovan SM, Kuhlenschmidt MS. Current topics soy isoflavones and virus infections. J Nutr Biochem 2009;20:563–9.

Chiang LC, Ng LT, Cheng PW, Chiang W, Lin CC. Antiviral activities of extracts and selected pure constituents of Ocimum basilicum. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2005;32:811–6.

Felipe AMM, Rincão VP, Benati FJ, Linhares REC, Galina KJ, de Toledo CEM, et al. Antiviral effect of Guazuma ulmifolia and Stryphnodendron adstringens on poliovirus and bovine herpesvirus. Biol Pharm Bull 2006;29:1092–5.

Published

01-06-2015

How to Cite

On Author’s Request, A. H. B. W. “IN VITRO EVALUATION OF THE NON-CYTOTOXIC THYMUS CAPITATUS EXTRACTS INHIBIT BOVINE HERPESVIRUS-1 EXPANSION”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 7, no. 6, June 2015, pp. 35-40, https://innovareacademics.in/journals/index.php/ijpps/article/view/3144.

Issue

Section

Original Article(s)