SYNERGISTIC EFFECT OF ANTI-OXIDANT, ANTI-TYROSINASE AND ANTI-BACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF TRIDAX PROCUMBENS, LANTANA CAMARA, EUPHORBIA HIRTA AND THEVETIA PERUVIANA PLANT EXTRACTS FOR COSMETIC AND PERSONAL CARE APPLICATIONS
Objective: Herbal skin care products have become increasingly popular in the cosmeceuticalÂ industry. Skin care products are used to lighten the skin, improve the skin tone, treat pigmentation disorders and to combat the skin microflora. The approaches in development of skin care products have broadened widely in the recent years. One of the approaches is the utilization of a consortium of herbal extracts that have multiple benefits such as antimicrobial, anti-tyrosinase and antioxidant activities for their combined effects in skin care formulations. Â The present study is an effort to investigate the anti-tyrosinase, anti-oxidant and antibacterial properties in selected Malaysian plants viz.Â Tridax procumbens, Lantana camara, Euphorbia hirtaÂ andÂ Thevetia peruviana towards their application in skincareÂ and personal care formulation.Â The major objectives of the study are: to extract the bio-active principles from these plants with three different solvents, screen the extracts for anti-tyrosinase activity, anti-oxidant and anti-bacterial activities, evaluate the synergistic effect of polyherbal mix for the development a skincare formulation that has a combined effect of anti-tyrosinase, anti-oxidant and anti-bacterial activities.Â
Methods: The crude extracts were screened for (i) anti-tyrosinase property by dopachrome method; (ii) anti-oxidant property by DPPH and FRAP assays and (iii) antimicrobial property using disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. Synergistic combination of specific plant extracts rich in anti-tyrosinase, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties were incorporated and evaluated for their benefits in the skincare cream. The skincare cream was evaluated for preservative efficacy by challenging it with test microorganisms: Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coliÂ andÂ StaphylococcusÂ aureusÂ as described inÂ British Pharmacopoeia 2002.Â
Results: The anti-oxidant activity of plant extracts were evaluated using DPPH and FRAP assays which were found to be correlated. Antioxidant activity was observed to be the highest in methanol extract of Euphorbia hirta and acetone extract of Euphorbia hirta. The polyherbal extract combination acted as the only preservative in the formulation and recorded 99% mortality of the loaded microorganisms in 7 days.Â Hence, theÂ polyherbal extract combination would serve as natural preservative augmented with skin lightening benefits replacing the synthetic anti-tyrosinase, anti-oxidant and anti-bacterial compounds. Anti-tyrosinase activity has been reported in Tridax procumbens, Euphorbia hirta and Thevetia peruviana for the first time in this study.
Conclusion: Remarkable anti-bacterial activity was observed in acetone extracts of Tridax procumbens. Synergistic effect of the polyherbal mix was confirmed for anti-oxidant activity and antibacterial activity. However, synergistic effect of the polyherbal mix for anti-tyrosinase activity was not significant in comparison to the individual activity of the selected plants.
2. Tiwari P, Bimlesh K, Kaur M, Kaur G, Kaur H. Phytochemical screening and Extraction: a review. Int Pharm Scei 2011;1(1):98-106.
3. Gokulshankar S, Ranjith MS, Babu K, Deepa MA, Mohanty BK, et al. In Fairness in a natural way-Novel polyherbal ingredients inhibiting melanin synthesis and transfer Melanin: Biosynthesis, Functions and Health Effects (ISBN: 978-1-61942-019-9) Nova Publishers USA; 2012.
4. Chang, TS. An updated review of tyrosinase inhibitors. International J Mol Sci 2009;10(6):2440â€“75.
5. Palmer, Kitchin. Oxidative damage, skin aging and antioxidants and a novel antioxidant rating system. J Drugs Dermatol 2010;9(1):11-5.
6. Krishnamoorthy JR, Sumithira R, Gokulshankar S, Ranjith MS, Ranganathan S, Mohanty BK. Hair growth modulating effect of a novel herbal formulation. A rediscovery of traditional knowledge. J Appl Cosmetol 2010:28:147-51.
7. Miyazawa M, Oshima T, Koshio K, Itsuzaki Y, Jun Anzai. Tyrosinase inhibitor from from black rice bran. J Agricultural Food Chem 2003;51(24):6953-6.
8. Abdulla E, Raus RA, Jamal P. Extaction and Evaluation of Anti-bacterial Activity from Selected Plants. Am Med J 2012;3(1):27-32.
9. Saxena VK, Albert S. Beta-sitosterol-3-O-beta-D-xylopyranoside from the flowers of Tridax procumbens Linn. J Chem Sci 2005;117(3):263-6.
10. Raina R, Prawez S, Verma PK, Pankaj NK. Medicinal Plants and their Role in Wound Healing. Vet Scan 2008;3(1):1-7.
11. Kumar S, Malhotra R, Kumar D. Euphorbia hirta: its chemistry, traditional and medicinal uses, and pharmacological activities. Pharmacognosy Rev 2010;4:58-61.
12. Zibbu G, Batra A. GC-MS Analysis of the dessert plants of Apocynaceae family: nerium oleander and Thevetia peruviana. Int J Pharm Res Development 2011;3(10):49-62.
13. Kamkar A, Jebelli JA, Asadi F, Kamalinejad M. The antioxidative effect of Iranian Mentha pulegium extracts and essential oil in sunflower oil. Food Chem Toxicology 2010;48(7):1796-800.
14. Benzie IF, Strain JJ. ''The Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP) as a Measure of â€œAntioxidant Powerâ€: The FRAP Assay. Anal Biochem 1996;239(1):70-6.
15. Narisa K, Narong M, Charoen T. Screening of some tropical vegetables for anti-tyrosinase activity. Pharm Health J 2007;2(1):15-9.
16. Bauer AW, Kirby WM, Sherris JC. Antibiotic susceptibility testing by a standard single disc method. Am J Clinical Pathology 1996;451:493-6.
17. NCCLS. Performance Standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. (12th ed.) 2002.
18. Rhet DG, Haiying T, Steven S. Synergistic effects of antioxidants on the Oxidative stability of Soybean Oil â€“ and Poultry Fat-Based Biodiesel. J Am Oil Chemistsâ€™s Soc 2009;86:459-67.
19. Guo DJ, Cheng HL, Chan SW. Yu PH. Antioxidative activities and the total phenol contents of tonic Chinese medicinal herbs. Inflamo pharmacology 2008;16(5):201-7.
20. Sindhuja Priyadharsini R, Prabhakaran G, Gokulshankar S. Dual skin-care activity of selected herbsâ€“Promising 'do-good' ingredients in Skin care formulations? J Appl Cosmetol 2013;31(2):113-22.
21. Mohanty BK, Gokulshankar S, Prabhamanju M, Ranjith MS, Ashutosh SR. Dandruff-A management strategy for one of the most chronic & commercially exploited skin conditions. Ed. A Mendez-Vilas Worldwide Research Efforts in the Fighting Against Microbial Pathogens: From Basic Research to Technological Developments (ISBN-10:1612336361;ISBN-13:9781612336367) BrownWalker Press, USA; 2012.