PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ANTI-TRICHOSPORON ACTIVITY OF PLUMBAGO ZEYLANICA LINN
Objective: To evaluate the anti-Trichosporon activity of a medicinal plant, Plumbago zeylanica Linn and to find out the phytochemicals responsible for this activity with the use of four solvent extracts; methanol, ethanol, acetone and chloroform.
Methods: To evaluate the antifungal activity, two methods were used. Agar well diffusion assay to determine the diameter of zone of inhibition (in mm) and MIC (in mg/ml) was determined through Tube dilution broth assay. Phytochemical screening for preliminary analysis of secondary metabolites was done through chemical methods.
Results: Trichosporon asahii was found to be most sensitive to methanol extract of P. zeylanica with inhibition zone of 35 mm and T. inkin with 30 mm zone of inhibition. MIC results also showed that the methanol extract was most effective in lowest concentration against T. asahii with MIC at 6.2 mg/ml and inhibited T. inkin at 25 mg/ml. Phytochemical screening of plant extracts revealed the presence of certain phyto-constituents like alkaloids, steroids, flavonoids, phenols, glycosides, tannins etc.
Conclusion: The present study proved the sensitivity of the yeast Trichosporon spp. to different extracts of P. zeylanica. T. asahii was found to be more sensitive towards the extracts. Methanol extract proved to be most effective compared to ethanol, acetone and chloroform as it gave the maximum zones and lowest MIC result. Phytochemical analysis proved the presence of certain phytochemicals which was responsible for their antifungal activity.
2. Erer B, Galimberti M, Lacarelli G, Giardini C, Polchi P, et al. Trichosporon beigelii: A life threatening pathogen in immuno-compromised hosts. Bone Marr Trans 2000;25:745-9.
3. Kim JC, Kim YS, Park CS, Kang JM, Kim BN, et al. A case of disseminated Trichosporon beigelii infection in a patient with myelodysplastic syndrome after chemotherapy. J Kor Med Sci 2001;16(4):505-8.
4. Sobera JO, Elewski BE. Fungal diseases. In: Bolognia J, Jorizzo J, Rapini R. (eds). Dermatology. 2nd Ed. Spain: Mosby; 2008. p. 1135-6.
5. Balandrin MF, Klocke JA, Wurtele ES, Bollinger WH. Natural plant chemical sources of industrial and medicinal materials. Sci 1985;228:1154-60.
6. Conner DE. Naturally occurring compounds. In: Davidson PM, Branen AL. (eds). Antimicrobials in foods. 2ndedu. Marcel Dekker Inc: New York; 1993.
7. Gill LS, Akinwunmi C. Nigerian folk medicine: practices and beliefs of the Ondu people. J Ethnopharmacol 1986;18:257-66.
8. Kumar A, Shukla R, Singh P, Prasad, CS Dubey NK. Assessment of Thymus vulgaris L. essential oil as a safe botanical preservative against post harvest fungal infestation of food commodities. Innovative Food Sci Emerging Technol 2008;9:575-80.
9. Jiangsu. New Medical College, "Zhongyao Dictionary (Encyclopedia of Chinese Materia Medica), Scientific and Technological Press: Shanghai";1979. p. 711-2.
10. Simonsen HT, Nordskjold JB, Smitt UW, Nyman U, Palpu P, et al. In vitro screening of Indian medicinal plants for antiplasmodial activity. J Ethnopharmacol 2001;74:195â€“204.
11. Ahmad I, Mehmood Z, Mohammad F, Ahmad S. Antimicrobial potency and synergistic activity of five traditionally used Indian medicinal plants. J Med Arom Pl Sci 2000;23:173â€“6.
12. Mehmood Z, Ahmad I, Mohammad F, Ahmad S. Indian medicinal plants: a potential source of anticandidal drugs. Pharm Biol 1999;37:237â€“42.
13. Oyedapo OO. Studies on the bioactivity of the extract of Plumbago zeylanica. Phytother Res 1996;13:346â€“8.
14. Garcia S, Araiza M, Gomez M, Heredia N. Inhibition of growth, enterotoxin and spore production of Clostridium perfringes by extracts of medicinal plants. J Food Prot 2002;65:1667-9.
15. Sahm DF, Washington JA. Antibacterial susceptibility tests: dilution methods. In: Manual of clinical Microbiology. Lennette, EH (ed.). 5th edition. American Society of Microbiology Washington DC; 1990. p. 1105-18.
16. Demarsh PL, Gagnon RC, Hetzberg RP, Jaworski DD. Methods of screening for antimicrobial compounds. Smithkline Beccham Corporation. Pub World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO); 2001.
17. Harborne JB. Phytochemical methods: a guide to modern techniques of plant analysis. Chapman and Hall. 2nd edn. London: New York; 1984. p. 288.
18. Trease GE, Evans WC, Pharma cognsy. 11th Edn. Brailliar Tiridel Can Macmillan Publishers; 1989.
19. Assaf RR, Weil ML. The superficial mycoses. Dermatol Clin 1996;14(1):57-67.
20. Chagas-Neto TC, Chaves GM, Colombo AL. Update on the genus Trichosporon. Mycopathol 2008;166:121-32.
21. Tashiro T, Nagai H, Kamberi P, Goto Y, Kikuchi H, et al. Disseminated Trichosporon beigelii infection in patients with malignant diseases: immunohistochemical study and review. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 1994;13(3):218-24.
22. Newman DJ, Gragg GM. Natural products as sources of new drugs over the last 25 years. J Nat Prod 2007;70:461-77.
23. Soylu EM, Tok FM, Soylu S, Kaya AD, Evrendilek GA. Antifungal activities of essential oils on post harvest disease against Penicillium digitatum. Pak J Biol Sci 2005;8:25-9.
24. Yoshida M, Fuchigami M, Nagao T, Okabe H, Matsunaga K, et al. Anti-proliferative constituents from Umbelliferae plants VII. Active triterpenes and rosmarinic acid from Centella asiatica. Biol Pharm Bull 2005;28:173-5.
25. Nejad BS, Deokule SS. Anti-dermatophytic activity Drynaria quercifolia (L.). Jundishapur J Microbiol 2009;2:25-30.
26. Natarajan V, Venugopal PV, Menon T. Effect of Azadirachta indica (neem) on the growth pattern of dermatophytes. Ind J Med Microbiol 2003;21:1-4.
27. Rahman MS, Anwar MN. Antimicrobial activity of crude extract obtained from the root of Plumbago zeylanica. Bang J Microbiol 2007;24(1):73-5.
28. Dhale DA, Markandeya SK. Antimicrobial and Phytochemical screening of plumbago zeylanica linn.(Plumbaginaceae) leaf. J Env Sci 2011;2(3):4-6.
29. Sofowora A. Medicinal plants and traditional medicine in africa. Spectrum Books Ltd. Ibadan: Nigeria; 1993. p. 191-289.