TRUSTING THE PHARMACIST IN DELIVERING MEDICATION INFORMATION: A COMMUNITY-BASED PERSPECTIVE

  • HANI DIMASSI Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Lebanese American University, P. O. Box: 36 (S23), Byblos, Lebanon
  • MAGGY MAKHOUL School of Pharmacy, Lebanese American University, P. O. Box: 36 (S23), Byblos, Lebanon
  • JOANNE KHABSA School of Pharmacy, Lebanese American University, P. O. Box: 36 (S23), Byblos, Lebanon
  • MARGUERITA SAADEH Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, Widerströmska Huset, Tomtebodavägen 18a, Floor 10, Stockholm
  • SHADI SALEH Associate Vice President for Health Affairs, Founding Director, Global Health Institute, Professor of Health Systems and Financing, American University of Beirut, P. O. Box 11-0236/(Department), Riad El-Solh/Beirut 1107 2020, Lebanon

Abstract

Objective: Optimal disease management is influenced by a solid patient-health provider relationship; which includes trust in the provider. The study compares respondents’ trust in pharmacists and physicians for the delivery of drug information.


Methods: Residents of 3 rural communities in Lebanon, aged 40 and above, were invited to participate in the study, 760 accepted. Participants were asked who they trust the most with information about their medication: their physician or their pharmacist.


Results: Of the total sample, 154 chose the pharmacist as their most trusted source of medication information (20%). Characteristics associated with choosing the pharmacist were: being a male (29.3% vs 16.2% p<.001), of younger age (31.5% among<50 y, 18.8% among 50-64 y, and 14.6% among 65+years p<.001), single (31.6% vs 21.9% married and 9.3 others, p=0.023), working (39.2% vs15.7% p<.001), and insured (2.3% vs 16.4% p=0.048). The multivariate logistic regression model revealed that having a family member with hypertension (OR=1.86 95% 1.23-2.82), or cardiovascular (OR=3.39 95%CI 1.55-7.45) increased the likelihood of trusting pharmacists over medical doctor. On the other hand, a self-report of cardiovascular disease (OR=0.34 95% CI 0.12-0.95) and taking medication (OR=0.41 95% CI 0.25-0.67) were associated with a decrease in the trust in the pharmacist in favor of the physician.


Conclusion: Although pharmacists are the drug specialists, the majority of the Lebanese rural community residents reported higher trust in their physicians with information about their medication(s).

Keywords: Pharmacists, Physicians, Healthcare, Community pharmacy, Drug information, Counseling, Trust

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

1. Guirguis LM, Alghurair SA, Simpson SH. What elements of the patient-pharmacist relationship are associated with patient satisfaction? Patient Prefer Adherence 2012;6:663-76.
2. Gilson L. Trust and the development of health care as a social institution. Soc Sci Med 2003;56:1453-68.
3. Goold SD. Trust, distrust and trustworthiness. J Gen Intern Med 2002;17:79-81.
4. Weitzl W. Review of literature and theoretical background. Measuring Electronic Word-of-Mouth Effectiveness; 2017. p. 19–94.
5. Worley MM, Schommer JC, Brown LM, Hadsall RS, Ranelli PL, Stratton TP, et al. Pharmacists' and patients' roles in the pharmacist-patient relationship: Are pharmacists and patients reading from the same relationship script?. Res Soc Adm Pharm 2007;3:47-69.
6. Schommer JC. Patients’ expectations and knowledge of patient counseling services that are available from pharmacists. Am J Pharm Educ 1997;61:402-6.
7. Donohue JM, Huskamp HA, Wilson IB, Weissman J. Whom do older adults trust most to provide information about prescription drugs? Am J Geriatr Pharmacother 2009;7:105-16.
8. El-Hajj MS, Mansoor H, Salem S. Public's attitudes towards community pharmacy in qatar: a pilot study. Patient Prefer Adherence 2011;5:405-22.
9. Kao AC, Green DC, Davis NA, Koplan JP, Cleary PD. Patients' trust in their physicians: effects of choice, continuity, and payment method. J Gen Intern Med 1998;13:681-6.
10. Gidman W, Ward P, McGregor L. Understanding public trust in services provided by community pharmacists relative to those provided by general practitioners: a qualitative study. Br Med J Open 2012;2:e000939. Doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2012-000939.
11. Saleh S, Alameddine M, Farah A, El Arnaout N, Dimassi H, Muntaner C, et al. eHealth as a facilitator of equitable access to primary healthcare: the case of caring for non-communicable diseases in rural and refugee settings in lebanon. Int J Public Health 2018;63:577-88.
12. Saleh S, Farah A, El Arnaout N, Dimassi H, El Morr C, Muntaner C, et al. mHealth use for non-communicable diseases care in primary health: patients' perspective from rural settings and refugee camps. J Public Health (Oxf) 2018;40 Suppl 2:ii52–ii63.
13. Bachinger SM, Kolk AM, Smets EMA. Patients’ trust in their physician-psychometric properties of the dutch version of the “Wake Forest Physician Trust Scale”. Patient Educ Couns 2009;76:126-31.
14. Ha JF, Longnecker N. Doctor-patient communication: a review. Ochsner J 2010;10:38-43.
15. Tarn DM, Paterniti DA, Wenger NS, Williams BR, Chewning BA. Older patient, physician and pharmacist perspectives about community pharmacists' roles. Int J Pharm Pract 2012;20:285-93.
16. Achankunju B, Thomas J, Alexander R, Varughese SA, Sam GK. Assessment and evaluation on knowledge, attitude, and practice towards medication therapy management among the community of davangere city. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2017;10:380-3.
17. Sauriasari R, Sakti RM. Impact of a pharmacist-led patient education initiative on glycemic control of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a single-center experience in West Jakarta, Indonesia. Int J Appl Pharm 2018;10:252-6.
18. Forough AS, Esfahani PR. Impact of pharmacist intervention on appropriate insulin pen use in older patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in a rural area in Iran. J Res Pharm Pract 2017;6:114-9.
19. Østbye T, Yarnall KS, Krause KM, Pollak KI, Gradison M, Michener JL. Is there time for management of patients with chronic diseases in primary care? Ann Fam Med 2005;3:209–14.
20. Sullivan PW, Morrato EH, Ghushchyan V, Wyatt HR, Hill JO. Obesity, inactivity, and the prevalence of diabetes and diabetes-related cardiovascular comorbidities in the U. S., 2000-2002. Diabetes Care 2005;28:1599-603.
21. Wrede Sach J, Voigt I, Diederichs Egidi H, Hummers Pradier E, Dierks ML, Junius Walker U. Decision-making of older patients in the context of the doctor-patient relationship: a typology ranging from "self-determined" to "doctor-trusting" patients. Int J Family Med 2013;2013:478498.
22. Mind Over Matter: Patients’ Perceptions of Illness Make a Difference [Internet]. Association for Psychological Science. Available from: https://www.psychologicalscience.org/ news/releases/mind-over-matter-patients-perceptions-of-illness-make-a-difference.html [Last accessed on 05 Sep 2019].
23. Whitty JA, Kendall E, Sav A, Kelly F, McMillan SS, King MA, et al. Preferences for the delivery of community pharmacy services to help manage chronic conditions. Res Social Adm Pharm 2015;11:197-215.
24. Mahmudah RL, Ikawati Z, Wahyono D. A qualitative study of perspectives, expectations and needs of education in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Int J Curr Pharm Res 2017;9:32-5.
25. Galdas P, Cheater F, Marshall P. Men and health help-seeking behaviour: a literature review. J Adv Nurs 2005;49:616-23.
26. Ammanath AB, SR, Kg R, Mattumal S, Ug U. Assessment of correlation in gender and age with lipoprotein levels in hyperlipidemia patients. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2016;9:197-9.
27. Leisen B, Hyman MR. An Improved scale for assessing patients' trust in their physician. Health Mark Q 2001;19:23-42.
28. Thom DH, Ribisl KM, Stewart AL, Luke DA. Further validation and reliability testing of the trust in physician scale. Med Care 1999;37:510-7.
29. Ngorsuraches S, Lerkiatbundit S, Li SC, Treesak C, Sirithorn R, Korwiwattanakarn M. Development and validation of the patient trust in community pharmacists (TRUST-Ph) scale: results from a study conducted in Thailand. Res Social Adm Pharm 2008;4:272-83.
Statistics
170 Views | 122 Downloads
Citatons
How to Cite
DIMASSI, H., M. MAKHOUL, J. KHABSA, M. SAADEH, and S. SALEH. “TRUSTING THE PHARMACIST IN DELIVERING MEDICATION INFORMATION: A COMMUNITY-BASED PERSPECTIVE”. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 12, no. 2, Dec. 2019, pp. 26-31, doi:10.22159/ijpps.2020v12i2.35960.
Section
Original Article(s)