CHARACTERISATION OF CAROTENOID CONTENT IN DIVERSE LOCAL SWEET POTATO (IPOMOEA BATATAS) FLESH TUBERS
Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is one of the most important food crops in the world. Sweet potato is rich withÂ carotenoids and pro-vitamin A. Carotenoids compounds are commonly found in fruits and vegetables and are responsible for yellow, orange, and red pigmentations. Carotenoids are antioxidants compounds with pharmaceutical and medicinal benefits. Carotenoids such as Î±-carotene and Î²-carotene react as provitamin A in the human body, while lutein and zeaxanthin are two major components of the macular pigment of the retina.
Objective: The objective of this study is to verify the high nutritional value of Malaysian sweet potatoes varieties by identifying and comparing their carotenoids content.
Methods: Spectrophotometry and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis were used to identifying and comparing carotenoids content quantitatively and qualitatively in orange, yellow, purple and white Malaysian sweet potatoes flesh tuber.
Results: The results of this study showed that the highest total carotenoid content was in orange sweet potato followed by yellow, purple and white sweet potato. Î²-carotene was available in all types of sweet potato ranging from 91.95Â±2.05 Î¼g/g DW in white sweet potato to 376.03Â±11.05 Î¼g/g DW in orange sweet potato. Detectable levels of zeaxanthin were appeared with values 5.44Â±3.23 Î¼g/g DW and 20.47Â±2.03 Î¼g/g DW in yellow and white sweet potato, respectively. Lutein was available only in orange sweet potato at trace amount of 0.91Â±1.03 Î¼g/g DW. Purple sweet potato contains only Î²-carotene (113.86Â±14.17 Î¼g/g DW) with absence of other carotenoids.
Conclusion: Total and individual carotenoids content vary between the flesh of these local sweet potato varieties. The results from this study can festoon the pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries markedly.
2. Mark LF, Sagar KT, Jung YK. In Vitro bioaccessibility of Î²-carotene in orange fleshed sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas, Lam.). J Agric Food Chem 2009;57(9):10922-7.
3. Davidson A. Oxford Companion to Food. New York: Oxford Uni. Press; 1999. p. 912.
4. Woolfe JA. Post harvest procedures: Sweet Potato an Untapped Food Source. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press; 1992. p. 643.
5. Bovell-Benjamin A. Sweet potato: a review of its past, present and future role in human nutrition. Adv Food Nutr Res 2007;52:1-59.
6. Zhang K, Wu Z, Li Y, Zhang H, Wang L, Zhou Q, et al. ISSR-Based molecular characterization of an elite germplasm collection of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) in China. J Integr Agric 2014;13(11):2346-61.
7. Goo Y, Han E, Jeong JC, Kwak S, Yu J, Kim Y, et al. Over expression of the sweet potato IbOr gene results in the increased accumulation of carotenoid and confers tolerance to environmental stresses in transgenic potato. C R Biol 2014;338(1):12-20.
8. de la Rosa LA, Alvarez-Parrilla E, Gonzalez-Aguilar GA. Fruit and Vegetable Phytochemicals: Chemistry, Nutritional Value and Stability. Wiley-Blackwell; 2009. p. 211.
9. Rodriguez-Amaya DB. Carotenoids and food preparation: The retention of pro-vitamin A carotenoids in prepared, processed, and stored foods. Opportunities for Micronutrient Intervention (OMNI), Arlington; 1997.
10. Fatimah Azzahra MZ, Norazian MH, Rashidi O. Quantification of pro-vitamin a activities and content in 22 selected â€˜ulamâ€™ species or Malaysian traditional vegetables. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2014;6(3):9-12.
11. Olmedilla B, Granado F, Blanco I, Rojas-Hidalgo E. Seasonal and sex-related variations in six serum carotenoids, retinol and a-tocopherol. Am J Clin Nutr 1994;60:106-10.
12. Khachik F, Spangler CJ, Smith JC, Canfield LM, Steck A, Pfander H. Identification, quantification and relative concentrations of carotenoids and their metabolites in human milk and serum. Anal Chim Acta 1997;69:1873-81.
13. Aurelie B. Thesis. Investigating carotenoids loss after drying and storage of orange-fleshed sweet potato. University of Greenwich; 2010.
14. Lee CY, Simpson KL, Gerber L. Vegetables as a major vitamin A source in our diet. New Yorkâ€™s Food and Life Sciences Bulletin; 1989. p. 126.
15. Maruf A, Sorifa AM, Jong-Bang E. Peeling, drying temperatures, and sulphite-treatment affect physicochemical proprieties and nutritional quality of sweet potato flour. Food Chem 2009;121:112-8.
16. Gaston AT, Agne N, Muyonga JH. Microstructure and in vitro beta carotene bioaccessibility of heat processed orange fleshed sweet potato. Plants Food Human Nutr 2009;64(4):312-8.
17. Yuan SQ, Zhao YM, You Y. Alkaloids of the hairy roots of Ipomoea batatas Lam. Yao Xue Xue Bao 2004;39(10):818-20.
18. Huang DJ, Chen HJ, Hou WC, Lin CD, Lin YH. Active recombinant thioredoxin h protein with antioxidant activities from sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam Tainong 57) storage roots. J Agric Food Chem 2004;52(15):4720-4.
19. Philpott M, Gould S, Lim C, Ferguson LR. In situ and In Vitro antioxidant activity of sweet potato anthocyanins. J Agric Food Chem 2004;52(6):1511-3.
20. Van den Berg H, Faulks R, Fernando Granado H, Hirshberg J, Olmedilla B, Sandmann G, et al. Review: the potential for the improvement of carotenoids levels in foods and the likely systemic effects. J Sci Food Agric 2000;80:880-912.
21. Othman R. Thesis. Biochemistry and genetics of carotenoids composition in potato tubers. Lincoln University; 2009.
22. Lewis DH, Bloor SJ, Schwinn KE. Flavonoid and carotenoid pigments in flower tissue of Sandersonia aurantiaca (Hook.). Sci Hortic 1998;72:179â€“92.
23. Wellburn AR. The spectral determination of chlorophylls a and b, as well as total carotenoids, using various solvents with spectrophotometers of different resolution. J Plant Physiol 1994;144:301-13.
24. Morris WL, Ducreux L, Griffiths DW, Stewart D, Davies HV, Taylor MA. Carotenogenesis during tuber development and storage in potato. J Exp Bot 2004;55:975â€“82.
25. Mohd Zaifuddin FA, Mohd Hassan N, Othman R. Identification of carotenoid composition in selected â€˜ulamâ€™ or traditional vegetables of Malaysia. Int Food Res J 2012;19(2):527-30.
26. Pfander H. Carotenoids: an overview. Methods Enzymol 1992;213:3-13.
27. Tomlins K, Owori C, Bechoff A, Menya G, Westby A. Relationship among the carotenoid content, dry matter content and sensory attributes of sweet potato. Food Chem 2012;131(1):14-21.
28. Kreck M, Kurbel P, Ludwig M, Paschold PJ, Dietrich H. Identification and quantification of carotenoids in pumpkin cultivars Cucurbita maxima L. and their juices by liquid chromatography with ultraviolet-diode array detection. J Appl Bot Food Quality 2006;80(2):93â€“9.
29. Kimura M, Rodriguez-Amaya DB, Yokoyama SM. Cultivar differences and geographic effects on the carotenoid composition and vitamin a value of papaya. Lebensm Wiss Technol 1991;24:415-8.
30. Lucia Maria JDC, Patricia BG, Ronoel LDOG, Sidney P, Pedro HFDM, et al. Total carotenoid content, Î±-carotene and Î²-carotene of landrace pumpkins (cucurbita moschata duch): a preliminary study. Food Res Int 2012;47:337â€“40.
31. Norshazila S, Irwandi J, Othman R, Yumi Zuhanis HH. Carotenoid content in different locality of pumpkin (CucurbiIta Mmoschata) in Malaysia. Int J Pharm Sci 2014;6(3);29-32.
32. Burgos G, Rossemary C, Cynthfia S, Sosa P, Porras E, Jorge E, et al. A color chart to screen for high beta-carotene in Orange fleshed sweet potato breeding. International Potato Center 2001: Cairo, Egypt, September; 1997.
33. Almeida-Muradian LB, Penteado MVC. Carotenoids and provitamin A value of some Brazilian sweet potato cultivars (Ipomoea batatas Lam.). Rev Farm Bioquim Univ Sao Paulo 1992;28:145-54.
34. Takahata Y, Noda T, Nagata T. HPLC determination of Î²-carotene content in sweetpotato cultivars and its relationship with color value. Jpn J Breed 1993;43:421-27.
35. Qian JY, Liu D, Huang AG. The efficiency of flavonoids in polar extracts of lycium chinense mill fruits as free radical scavenger. Food Chem 2004;87:283â€“8.
36. Sass-Kiss A, Kiss J, Milotay P, Kerek MM, Toth-Markus M. Differences in anthocyanin and carotenoid content of fruits and vegetables. Food Res Int 2005;38:1023â€“9.
37. Trappey A, Bawadi HA, Bansode RR, Losso JN. Anthocyanin profile of mayhaw (Cretaegus opaca). Food Chem 2005;91:665â€“71.
38. Cieslik E, Greda A, Adamus W. Contents of polyphenols in fruit and vegetables. Food Chem 2006;94:135â€“42.
39. FAO/WHO Rome. Human Vitamin and Mineral Requirements. Report of joint FAO/WHO expert consultation Bangkok, Thailand; 2001. p. 87-107.
40. Scotta KJ, Rodriquez-Amaya DB. Pro-vitamin a carotenoid conversion factors: retinol equivalents-fact or fiction? Food Chem 2000;69:125-7.
41. Zhou CH, Xu CJ, Sun CD, Li X, Chen KS. Carotenoids in white and red fleshed loquat fruits. J Agric Food Chem 2007;55(19):7822-30.
42. RNI. Recommended Nutrient Intakes for Malaysia. A Report of the Technical Working Group on Nutritional Guidelines. National Coordinating Committee on Food and Nutrition, Ministry of Health Malaysia, Putrajaya; 2005. p. 111.
43. Jalal F, Nesheim MC, Agus Z, Sanjur D, Habitcht JP. Serum retinol concentrations in children are affected by food sources of b-carotene, fat intake and anthelmintic drug treatment. Am J Clin Nutr 1998;68:623-9.
44. Arima HK Rodriguez-Amaya DB. Carotenoid composition and vitamin a value of commercial brazilian squashes and pumpkins. J Micronutr Anal 1988;4:177â€“97.
45. Azevedo-Meleiro CH, Rodriguez-Amaya DB. Determination of the carotenoids of cucurbitaceae fruit vegetables by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS. Presentation at the IV Brazilian meeting on Chemistry of Food and Beverages, Campinas, Brazil; 2002.
46. Hussein SM, Jaswir I, Jamal P, Othman R. Carotenoid stability and quantity of different sweet potato flesh colour over postharvest storage time. Adv Environ Biol 2014;8(3):667-71.
47. Rodriguez-Amaya DB, Rodriguez EB, Amaya-Farfan J. Advances in food carotenoid research: chemical and technological aspects, implications in human health. Malaysian J Nutr 2006;12(1):101-21.
48. Rashidi O, Fatimah Azzahra MZ, Norazian MH. Carotenoid biosynthesis regulatory mechanisms in plants. J Oleo Sci 2014;63(8):753-60.