VANILLIC ACID INHIBITS LUNG CARCINOGENESIS BY MODULATES GLYCOPROTEIN ABNORMALITIES, MEMBRANE-BOUND ENZYMES, AND INFLAMMATORY MARKERS
Objective: The current plan was accompanied to explicate the possible protective role of vanillic acid (VA), on modification in lipid peroxidation, inflammatory cytokines, membrane-bound enzymes, and glycoconjugates during B(a)P induced lung cancer in Swiss albino mice.
Methods: Benzo(a)pyrene was administered orally (50 mg/kg b. wt) to induce lung cancer in Swiss albino mice. lipid peroxidation, serum marker enzymes, inflammatory cytokines, membrane-bound ATPases and protein-bound carbohydrate components (Hexose, hexosamine, sialic acid and fucose) and Mast cells and PAS staining were carried out.
Results: Lung cancer possessing animals exhibited increased levels of lipid peroxidation, ADA, AHH, γ-GT, 5’-NT, LDH, cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-1β, protein-bound carbohydrate components (protein-hexose, hexosamine, sialic acid, and fucose) also diminished activity of membrane-bound ATPases (Na+/K+ATPases, Ca2+ATPases, and Mg2+ATPase). Treatment with VA significantly ameliorated all these activities.
Conclusion: Overall, the present study evidence to the VA has effective anti-inflammatory in addition to free radical scavenging activity for the duration of lung carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice.
2. Winterhalder RC, Hirsch FR, Kotantoulas GK, Franklin WA, Bunn PA Jr. Chemoprevention of lung cancer-from biology to clinical reality. Ann Oncol 2004;15:185.
3. Ruano Ravina A, Figueiras A, Montes Martinez A, Barros Dios JM. Dose-response relationship between tobacco and lung cancer: new findings. Eur J Cancer Prev 2003;12:257.
4. Chandrasekar N, Subramanian R, Selvakumar A, John B, Thiruvengadam D. Baicalein improves antioxidant status and membrane-bound enzymes during oxidative stress in benzo(a)pyrene-induced lung carcinogenesis in mice. Biomed Preventive Nutr 2012;2:138-44.
5. Anandakumar P, Jagan S, Kamaraj S, Ramakrishnan G, Titto AA, Devaki T. Beneficial influence of capsaicin on lipid peroxidation, membrane-bound enzymes and glycoprotein profile during experimental lung carcinogenesis. J Pharm Pharmacol 2008;60:803-8.
6. Edward SK, Faldo RK. Chemoprevention of lung cancer. Curr Oncol 2002;4:341-6.
7. Ramakrishnan G, Titto AA, Jagan S, Vinodhkumar R, Devaki T. Effect of silymarin on N-nitrosodiethylamine induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats. Exp Oncol 2007;29:39-44.
8. Sinha AK, Sharma UK, Sharma N. A comprehensive review on vanilla flavour: extraction, isolation and quantification of vanillin and other constituents. Int J Food Sci Nutr 2008;59:299-326.
9. Charrouf Z, Guillaume D. Phenols and polyphenols from argania spinosa. Am J Food Technol 2007;2:679.
10. Prince PSM, Rajkumar S, Dhanasekar K. Protective effect of vanillic acid on electrocardiogram, lipid peroxidation, antioxidants, proinflammatory markers and histopathology in isopretanol induced cardiotoxic rats. Eur J Pharmacol 2011;668:233-40.
11. Vetrano AM, Heck DE, Mariano TM, Mishin V, Laksin DL, Laskin JD. Characterization of the oxidase activity in mammalian catalase. J Biol Chem 2011;280:35372-81.
12. Guler EM, Nilufer C, Ozgur V, Dilek Y, Deniz B, Rahmi B. Genotoxic and Anti-genotoxic effects of vanillic acid against mitomycin C-induced genomic damage in human lymphocytes in vitro. Asian Pacific J Cancer Prev 2012;13:4993-8.
13. Vinoth A, Kowsalya R. Assessment of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in vanillic acid-treated 7, 12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. J Can Res Ther 2018;14:1285-90.
14. Huang SM, Hsu CL, Chuang HC, Shih PH, Wu CH, Yen GC. Inhibitory effect of vanillic acid on methylglyoxal-mediated glycation in apoptotic neuro-2A cells. Neurotoxicology 2008;29:1016-22.
15. Tsuda H, Uehara N, Iwahori Y, Asamoo M, Ligo M, Nagao M, et al. Chemopreventive effects of beta-carotene, alpha-tocopherol and five naturally occurring antioxidants on initiation of hepatocarcinogenesis by 2-amino-3methylmidazo (4,5) quinoline in the rat. Japanese J Cancer Res 1994;85:1214-9.
16. Itoh A, Isoda K, Kondoh M, Kawase M, Kobayashi M, Tamesada M, et al. Hepatoprotective effect of syringic acid and vanillic acid on concanavalin a-induced liver injury. Bio-Pharm Bull 2009;32:1215-9.
17. Chiang LC, Ng LT, Chiang W, Chang MY, Lin CC. Immunomodulatory activities of flavonoids, monoterpenoids, triterpenoids, iridoid glycosides and phenolic compounds of plantago species. Planta Med 2011;69:600-4.
18. Jingli G, Shengxue Z, Shihai Y. Vanillic acid suppresses HIF-1? expression via inhibition of mTOR/p70S6K/4E-BP1 and Raf/MEK/ERK pathways in human colon cancer HCT116 cells. Int J Mol Sci 2019;20:465.
19. kanna VS, Jagan S, Murugan M, Gopalakrishnan B, Devaki T. Protective effect of vanillic acid against benzo(a)pyrene-induced lung cancer in swiss albino mice. J Biochem Mol Toxicol 2019;33:e22382.
20. Bradford MM. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal Biochem 1976;72:248-54.
21. Galanti B, Giusti G. Direct colorimetric method for the determination of adenosine deaminase and 5’-AMP deaminase in the blood. Boll Soc Ital Biol Sper 1966;42:1316-20.
22. Mildred K, Richerd L, Joseph G, Alexander W, Conney A. Activation and inhibition of benzo(a)pyrene and aflatoxin B1 metabolism in human liver microsomes by naturally accruing flavonoids. Cancer Res 1981;41:67-2.
23. Orlowski M, Meister A. Isolation of ?-glutamyl transpeptidase from hog kiney. J Biol Chem 1965;240:338-47.
24. Hardonk MJ. 5’-nucleotidase. I. determinations of 5’-nucleotidase isoenzymes in tissues of rat and mouse. Histochemie 1968;12:1-17.
25. King J. The transferases-alanine and aspartate transaminases. In: King J. Ed. Practical clinical enzymology. Van Nostrand Company Ltd., London; 1965c. p. 121-38.
26. Dodge JT, Hanahan DJ. The preparation and chemical characteristics of hemoglobin-free ghosts of human erythrocytes. Arch Biochem Biophys 1963;100:119-30.
27. Ohkawa H, Ohishi N, Yagi K. Assay for lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Anal Biochem 1979;95:351-8.
28. Israel Y, Kalant H, Leblanc E, Bernstein JC, Salazar I. Changes in cation transport and (Na+K+) activated adenosine triphosphatase produced by chronic administration of ethanol. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1970;174:330-6.
29. Hjerten S, Pan H. Purification and characterization of two forms of a low-affinity Ca2+ATPase from erythrocyte membranes. Biochim Biophys Acta 1983;728:281-8.
30. Ohnishi T, Suzuki Y, Ozawa K. A comparative study of plasma membrane Mg2+ATPase activities in normal, regenerating and malignant cells. Biochim Biophys Acta 1982;684:67-74.
31. Niebes P, Berson I. Determination of enzymes and degradation products of mucopolysaccharide metabolism in the serum of healthy and varicose subjects. Bibliotheca Anatomica 1973;11:499-506.
32. Warren L. The thiobarbituric acid assay of sialic acids. J Biol Chem 1959;234:1971-5.
33. Ranieri G, Labriola A, Achille G, Florio G, Zito G, Zito AF, et al. Microvessel density, mast cell density and thymidine phosphorylase expression in oral squamous carcinoma. Int J Oncol 2002;21:1317-23.
34. Meloan SN, Valentine LS, Puchtler H. On the structure of carminic acid and carmine. Histochemie 1971;27:87-95.
35. Kamaraj S, Anandakumar P, Jagan S, Ramakrishnan G, Devaki T. Modulatory effect of hesperidin on benzo(a)pyrene-induced experimental lung carcinogenesis with reference to COX-2, MMP-and MMP-9. Eur J Pharmacol 2010;649:320-7.
36. Yogeeswaran G. Cell surface glycolipids and glycoproteins in malignant transformation. Adv Cancer Res 1983;38:289-350.
37. Sharmila S, Sathesh KV, Palanisamy K, Indumathi S, Manikandan M, Nirmala S, et al. Anti-cancer efficacy of umbelliferone against benzo(a)pyrene-induced lung carcinogenesis in swiss albino mice. Malaya J Biosci 2018;5:79-89.
38. Kocic G, Stanojevic V, Nagorm A, Brankovic N, Pavlovic D, Jevtovic T. Diagnostic importance of adenosine deaminase activity for progression and invasion of human colon tumors. Facta Universities 2003;10:76-8.
39. Amir M, Tiejuan M, Yang X, Rodney EK, Jiang-Fan C, Michael RB. Genetic removal of the A2A adenosine receptor enhances pulmonary inflammation, mucin production, and angiogenesis in adenosine deaminase-deficient mice. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2007;293:L753-L761.
40. Ngo EO, Nutter LM. Status of glutathione and glutathione-metabolizing enzymes in menadione-resistant human cancer cells. Biochem Pharmacol 1994;47:421-4.
41. Erdemli HK, Adam B, Bavbek N. Pyrmidine 5’nucleotidase I and II activities in acute leukaemias. Acta Medica (Hradec Kralove) 2004;47:129-31.
42. Dao TL, Ip C, Patel J. Serum sialyltransferase and 5’-nucleotidase as reliable biomarkers in women with breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Ins 1980;65:529-34.
43. Anbarasi K, Sabitha KE, Devi CSS. Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme patterns upon chronic exposure to cigarette smoke: protective effect of bacoside A. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2005;20:345-50.
44. Coussens LM, Werb Z. Inflammation and cancer. Nature 2002;420:860-7.
45. Heissig B, Rafii S, Akiyama H, Ohki Y, Sato Y, Rafael T, et al. Low-dose irradiation promotes tissue revascularization through VEGF release from mast cells and MMP-9 mediated progenitor cell mobilization. J Exp Med 2005;202:739-50.
46. Tomita M, Mattsuzaki Y, Onitsuka T. Effect of mast cells on tumor angiogenesis in lung cancer. Ann Thorac Surgeons 2000;69:1686-90.
47. Balkwill F, Mantovani A. Inflammation and cancer: back to virchow? Lancet 2001;357:539-45.
48. Ben Bauch A. Host microenvironment in breast cancer development: inflammatory cells, cytokines and chemokines in breast cancer progression: reciprocal tumor-microenvironment interactions. Breast Cancer Res 2003;5:31-6.
49. Lejune FJ, Ruegg C, Lienard D. Clinical applications of TNF-alpha in cancer. Curr Opin Immunol 1998;10:573-80.
50. Noguchi M, Hiwatashi N, Liu Z, Toyoto T. Secretion imbalance between tumour necrosis factor and its inhibitor in inflammatory bowel disease. Gut 1998;43:203-9.
51. Bartel DP. MicroRNAs genomics, biogenesis, mechanism, and function. Cell 2004;116:281-97.
52. Cheng-cheng W, Jia-rui Y, Chen-fei W, Nan Y, Juan C, Dan L, et al. Anti-inflammatory effects of Phyllanthus emblica L on benzopyrene-induced precancerous lung lesion by regulating the IL-1?/miR-101/lin 28B signaling pathway. Integrative Cancer Ther 2017;16:505-15.
53. Thirunavukkarasu C, Sakthisekaran D. Stabilization of membrane-bound enzyme profiles by sodium selenite in N-nitrosoethylamine induced and phenobarbitol promoted hepatocarcinogenesis in rats. Biomed Pharmacother 2003a;57:117-23.
54. Thirunavukkarasu C, Sakthisekaran D. Influence of sodium selenite on glycoprotein contents in normal and N-nitrosodiethylamine initiated and phenobarbitol promoted rat liver tumors. Pharmacol Res 2003b;48:167-73.
55. Selvendiran K, Prince Vijeya Singh J, Sakthisekaran D. In vivo effect of piperine on serum and tissue glycoproteins levels in benzo(a)pyrene-induced lung carcionogenesis in Swiss albino mice. Pulmonary Pharmacol Ther 2006;19:107-11.
56. Mariline G, Renata S, Carolina RP, Helena C, Felix C, Maria LB, et al. Cellular models and in vitro assays for the screening of modulators of P-gp, MRP1 and BCRP. Molecules 2017;22:600.
57. Madankumar A, Jayakumar S, Devaki T. Geraniol, a component of plant essential oils prevents experimental oral carcinogenesis by modulating glycoprotein abnormalities and membrane-bound Atpase’s. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2013;5:416-21.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.