A REVIEW ON SCOPES, METHODS AND RATIONALE OF INTEGRATIVE APPROACH IN SIDDHA MEDICINE WITH BIOMEDICINE
In India, according to WHO 2018 statistics, there were 63% of death occurred due to Non-communicable diseases (NCDs), in which Cardiovascular diseases were leading cause of death 27%, followed by Cancer 9%, Chronic respiratory disease 11%, Diabetes 3% and other NCDs 13%. This indicates that NCDs needs to become a priority in controlling and preventing. Therefore, the only effective intervention may be at controlling and preventing NCDs disease is Integrative Medicine. Integrative Medicine is a medical practice synthesizing Traditional medicine and Biomedicine preventive measures and treatment interventions. Autonomy of patients may end in no benefit out of their ignorance to select between the treatment options available in a country like India where Seven Recognized medical systems are available as a platter. Siddha system of medicine is one of the traditional medicines of India, practiced in the southern part of the country. This study aims at providing Health care system under one roof, in order to save public money, time and health as an existing model as co-location in Tamil Nadu. This can be achieved through assessing feasible areas of integration in the Siddha system of medicine with biomedicine. So the study deals with the utilization of Siddha system of medicine, scientific validation of Siddha medicines, Siddha medicine research undertaken by biomedical practitioners and some government policies supporting mainstreaming of Siddha.
2. Null G, Carolyn Dean, Martin Feldman, Debora Rasio, Dorothy Smith. Death by medicine. Virginia: Praktikos Books; 2010.
3. Lakshmi JK, Nambiar D, Narayan V, Sathyanarayana TN, Porter J, Sheikh K. Cultural consonance, constructions of science and co-existence: a review of the integration of traditional, complementary and alternative medicine in low-and middle-income countries. Health Policy Plan 2015;30:1067–77.
4. Sen S, Chakraborty R. Toward the integration and advancement of herbal medicine: a focus on traditional Indian medicine. Botanics: Targets Therapy 2015;5:33–44.
5. Calabrese C, Gregory WL, Leo M, Kraemer D, Bone K, Oken B. Effects of a standardized Bacopa monnieri extract on cognitive performance, anxiety, and depression in the elderly: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Altern Complement Med 2008;14:707-13.
6. Thanikachalam Sadagopan, Anbarasi Chandrasekharan, Harivanzan Vijayakumar, Saravanababu Chidambaram, Bhaskar VKS Lakkakula. Efficacy and safety profile of siddha compound madhumega choornam (MMC) in type II diabetic patients. Int J Pharm Res Scholars 2014;3:322-9.
7. GS Lekha. An interventional cohort study in dengue prevalent area by using nilavembu kudineer and awareness programme. IOSR J Dental Med Sci 2018;17:19-23.
8. Arul Mozhi P, Pattarayan R, Deivanayagi. S, Banumathy V. Analytical standardization of brahmi nei and effect of siddha methodologies on spasticity in cerebral palsy. Int J Curr Res Med Sci 2016;2:82-9.
9. Sugunthan S, Shailaja R, Mohamed Musthafa. A comparative clinical study on villaiver kudineer and varmam therapy in the treatment of cervical spondylosis. Eur J Pharm Med Res 2017;4:392-8.
10. V Velpandian, M Pitchiah Kumar, N Anbu, Md Musthafa, K Kanakavalli. Clinical evaluation of siddha drug gowri chinthamani chendooram in the management of osteoarthritis 2. Int J Pharm Sci Invent 2013;1:26-32.
11. S Rajalakshmi, Sathya Rajeswaran, K Samraj. An open comparative clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of siddha drugs panchamuga chendhuram and kundavaadhi thailam in psoriasis. Int J Res Ayurveda Pharm 2019;10:77-82.
12. P Kamalasoundaram, T Lakshmikantham, K Manikavasagam. Clinical evaluation of siddha medicine perumpadukku pittu in the treatment of pitha perumpadu (Dysfunctional Uterine Bleeding). Int J Curr Res Chem Pharm Sci 2018;5:14-21.
13. Karthik Nagarajan S, S Nagalakshmi, NJ Muthu Kumar, V Banumathi. A comparative clinical trial of siddha poly herbal formulation thetran ilagam (internal) and yogam therapy in the management of aan maladu (male infertility). World J Pharm Res 2019;8:878-93.
14. Subramaniyan Sridhar. Efficacy of classical siddha external therapy “Suttigai” (Thermal Cauterization) on azal keel vaatham. IOSR J Dental Med Sci (IOSRJDMS) 2018;17:1-11.
15. Kingsley J, Arun Kumar G, Sivakkumar S, Mariappan A, Visweswaran S, Banumathi V. 6 a pilot study on “combination of siddha formulation” in the treatment of “vali azhal keel vayu” (rheumatoid arthritis). World J Pharm Res 2018;7:1299-307.
16. Siva Josyaa S, Muthukumar NJ, Banumathi V. A pilot study of siddha drug nilavagai choornam (internal) and sanjeevi thylam (external) for the treatment of kanakadi (urticaria). World J Pharm Res 2018;7:1291-8.
17. Bapat RD, Acharya BS, Juvekar S, Dahanukar SA. Leech therapy for complicated varicose veins. Indian J Med Res 1998;107:281-4.
18. G Ridhambaradevi, R Vinodini, M Meenakshi Sundaram, V Banumathi. Clinical evaluation of a siddha preparation brahmi nei (internal medicine) and kollu podi thimirthal (external) in the treatment of sirasthambavaatham (cerebral palsy)–a pilot study. World J Pharm Res 2018;7:1435-43.
19. P Mirunaleni, Narmadha Jothinathan A, Shakthi Paargavi, Bhavani Balakrishnan. Effect of integrative approach using siddha medicines, isha yoga and dietary modifications in treatment of madhumegam (Diabetes mellitus) in holistic approach observational study. Int J Curr Res Chem Pharm Sci 2018;5:9-12.
20. K Samraj, K Kanakavalli Principal, P Sathiyarajeswaran. The siddha drug velvanga parpam intervention in the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia (bph): a case series. Indian J Appl Res 2017;7:74-6.
21. R Gayatri, BK Priya, S Vinayak S, S Elansekaran, M Ramamurthy, V Srinivasan, et al. Efficacy of nilavembu kudineer for treating renal calculi: a case series. Int J Trans Res Ind Med 2019;1:20-4.
22. S Natarajan, C Anbarasi, R Meena, SD Muralidass, P Sathiyarajeswaran, K Gopakumar, RS Ramaswamy. Treatment of acute avulsion of posterior cruciate ligament of left knee with bony fragment by Siddha Varmam therapy and traditional bone setting method. J Ayurveda Integr Med 2019;10:135-8.
23. Lalitha Sivasankaran, V Anavarathan, V Mahalakshmi, D Periyasami, NJ Muthukumar, V Banumathi. Pain management of attai vidal (leech therapy) in siddha system of medicine on lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow). World J Pharm Res 2019;8:809-14.
24. L Janani, Tushita Thakur. Insomnia as a presentation of depression managed with siddha varmam therapy and homoeopathic medicine: a case report. Eur J Pharm Med Res 2018;5:451-5.
25. GS Lekha, A Kanagarajan. Management of dermatophytosis or padarthamarai in siddha system-a case study. World J Pharm Res 2018;7:1264-71.
26. Sivakkumar S, Juliet L, Banumathi V. Effect of classical herbo-mineral siddha formulation Agasthiyar kuzhambu fumigation therapy on silaipun (varicose ulcer)-a case study. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2018;9:1189-93.
27. Arunadevi R, Susila R, Murugammal S, Divya S. Preparation and standardization of mathan tailam: a classical siddha formulation for diabetic ulcerative wound healing. J Ayurveda Integr Med 2018. Doi:10.1016/j.jaim.2017.08.011
28. Kumaravel Appavoo, Mudiganti Ram Krishna Rao. Treatment of peptic ulcers with a Siddha medicine, “Sirucinni Uppu” and prediction with regression models. Informatics Medicine Unlocked 2019;15:100169.
29. Christian GJ, Mubarak H, Yamini K, Onesimus T, Elansekaran S, Vennila K, et al. Anti-ulcer efficacy and safety of and a leghyam a polyherbal siddha formulation. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2014;5:1837-42.
30. K Sivaranjani Varma. Therapy for musculoskeletal disorders. Eur J Pharm Med Res 2016;3:131-5.
31. S Bhavani. Hepato-protective herbs and medicines in siddha system of medicine-a review. J Pharmacogn Phytochem 2017;6:2246-51.
32. Dharani, M Alamelu, J Sabira Sherin, K Merish, S Walter, Thomas M. Role of pugai (fumigation) in siddha system. World Siddha Day Special 2016;1:1-10.
33. B Chitra, Ramasamy RS. An overview on the role of siddha practices in the prevention and management of age related neurodegenerative disorders with special reference to senile dementia. Indo Am J Pharm 2015;5:1510-21.
34. BK Priya, S Elansekaran, M Ramamurthy, V Srinivasan, M Kanniyakumari, GJ Christian. A review on siddha external therapy–nasiyam (Nasal Instillation). Int J Ayur Pharm Res 2018;6:47-53.
35. Ananthalakshmi Ramamoorthy, Sunitha Janardhanan, Sathiyajeeva Jeevakarunyam, Nadheem Jeddy, Senthil Eagappan. Integrative oncology in indian subcontinent: an overview. J Clin Diagn 2015;9:1-3.
36. Jeeva Gladys R, Kalai Arasi R, Elangovan S, Mubarak H. Screening of siddha medicinal plants for anti cancer activity-a review. J Appl Pharm Sci 2013;3:176-82.
37. Shalini Rudra, Aakshi Kalra, Abhishek Kumar, William Joe. Utilization of alternative systems of medicine as health care services in India: evidence on AYUSH care from NSS 2014. PLoS One 2017;12:0176916.
38. Kannan M, Natarajan S, Sathiyarajeswaran P, Meenakshisundaramurthy K. The health status of geriatric population attending the special siddha geriatric clinic of a research institute. Int J Health Pharm Sci 2012;1:36–41.
39. Selvaraj K, Srinivasan M, Duraisamy V, Ramaswamy G, Venugopal V, Chinnakali P. Morbidity profile of elderly outpatients attending selected sub-district Siddha health facilities in Tamil Nadu, India. Ancient Sci Life 2016;35:212-6.
40. Reddy MM, Nair D, Duraisamy V, Selvaraj K, Chinnakali P, Saya GK. Morbidity profile of children attending Siddha hospitals in a district of Tamil Nadu, South India. Int J Contemp Pediatr 2015;2:168-71.
41. Venkatachalam Duraisamy, Pruthu Thekkur, Marie Gilbert Majella, Manikandan Srinivasan, Ganesh Kumar Saya, et al. Morbidity profile of adult outpatients attending traditional medicine health facilities in a district of South India. J Ayurveda Integr Med 2018;9:281-4.
42. Govindan S, Viswanathan S, Vijayasekaran V, Alagappan R. Further studies on the clinical efficacy of Solanum xanthocarpum and Solanum trilobatum in bronchial asthma. Phytother Res 2004;18:805-9.
43. Panchapagesa, Murali, Rajasekaran, Sikhamani, Paramesh P, R Krishnarajasekar O, et al. Plant-based formulation in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomized double-blind study. Respir Med 2006;100:39-45.
44. Panchapagesa Murali, Rajasekaran Sikhamani, Krishnarajasekar OR, Thiyagarajan Perumal, Krishna Nalini, Lakshmisubramanian S, et al. Plant-based formulation for bronchial asthma: a controlled clinical trial to compare its efficacy with oral salbutamol and theophylline. Respiration: Int Rev Thoracic Diseases 2006;73:457-63.
45. Saravana Babu C, Sathiya S, Anbarasi C, Prathyusha N, Ramakrishnan G, Kalaivani P, et al. Polyphenols in madhumega chooranam, a Siddha medicine, ameliorates carbohydrate metabolism and oxidative stress in type II diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol 2012;142:331-6.
46. S Babu, Chidambaram Kalaivani, Periyathambi Ranju, Vijayan Sekar, Sathiya Chandrasekaran, Anbarasi V Mahadevan, et al. Venthamarai chooranam, a polyherbal siddha medicine, alleviates hypertension via ATR and eNOS signaling pathway in 2K1C hypertensive rats. Exp Biol Med 2014;239:758-69.
47. Subash KR, Britto GF, Kumar KS, Umamaheshwari A, Konda VCR, Prakash BG. Analgesic activity of Alpinia galanga extract in mice models and TNF-alpha receptor computational docking analysis on its leads with pharmacokinetics prediction. Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2018;7:446-50.
48. RV Ramanarayana Reddy. Evaluation of antidiabetic activity of polyherbal formulation seenthil churnam in alloxan induced diabetic rats. World J Pharm Res 2016;3:4739-46.
49. Thyagarajan Sp, Jayaram S, Panneerselvam A. Effect of phyllanthus amarus, an Indian medicinal plant on healthy carriers of hepatitis B virus: Results of six clinical trials. Indian J Gastroenterol 1999;18 (Suppl 1):1990-6.
50. Saikarthik J, Ilango S, Kumar JV, Vijayaraghavan R. Phytochemical analysis of methanolic extract of seeds of Mucuna pruriens by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2017;8:2916-21.
51. Sulochana Bhat, Saketh Ram Thrigulla, N Srikanth, MM Padhi, Kartar Singh Dhiman. Integration of ayurveda with biomedicine: a response identification cross sectional survey. Ayushdhara 2015;2:1-5.
52. The National Population Policy. Department of Family Welfare, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Govt. of India. New Delhi: The National Population Policy; 2000. Available from: http://mohfw.nic.in/sites/default/files/26953755641410949469%20%281%29.pdf. [Last accessed on 23 Aug 2017]
53. National Health Policy. Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Govt. of India. New Delhi: National Health Policy; 2002. Available from: http://mohfw.nic.in/sites/default/files/18048892912105179110National.pdf. [Last accessed on 23 Aug 2017]
54. Darshan Shankar, Bhushan Patwardhan. AYUSH for New India: vision and strategy. J Ayurveda Integr Med 2017;8:137-9.
55. Renu Singh, Sarada Ota, Shruti Khanduri, Sandhya Rani, Arun Bhadula. Integration of AYUSH (Ayurveda and Yoga) with national programme for prevention and control of cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and stroke (NPCDCS): An appraisal of central council for research in ayurvedic sciences research and development initiatives. J Res Ayurvedic Sci 2018;2:27-36.
56. Tamil Nadu government provides a herbal cure for dengue, Biospectrum. Available from: https://www.biospectrumindia.com/news/77/9690/tamil-nadu-government-provides-a-herbal-cure-for-dengue. html [Last accessed on 19 Oct 2017]
57. Jaspreet Jain, Ankit Kumar, Vimal Narayanan, RS Ramaswamy, P Sathiyarajeswaran, MS Shree Devi, et al. Antiviral activity of ethanolic extract of nilavembu kudineer against dengue and chikungunya virus through in vitro evaluation. J Ayurveda Integr Med 2019;S0975-9476:30073-1.
58. Amma Magaperu Sanjeevi scheme launched by Chief Minister J Jayalalithaa, Chennai live. Com. Available from: https://www.livechennai.com/detailnews.asp?newsid=23779 [Last accessed on 12 Jan 2016]
59. Curatolo M, Bogduk N. Pharmacologic pain treatment of musculoskeletal disorders: current perspectives and future prospects. Clin J Pain 2001;17:25-32.
60. RS Ramaswamy, P Sathiyarajeswaran, M kannan, S Natarajan, R Meena. Guidelines for practice of siddha varmam therapy, Central council for research in Siddha, Chennai, 1st edition; 2017.
61. Jeyavenkatesh J, Elango V, Rojaramani S, Saravanapandian P, Senthinathan S. Clinical and experimental approach for karanool sigitchai in velimoolam (External haemorrhoid) and pouthiram (Low anal fistula). Case Study Alternative Med 2017;114:34-8.
62. R Vidhya, B Vinubharathi, NJ Muthukumar, MV Mahadevan, V Banumathi. Effectiveness of karanool therapy application on pilonidal sinus (Purai pun)-a case study. Int J Curr Res Med Sci 2018;4:31-5.
63. Wilson, Eugene, R Rajasekaran, A Narayana. Hirudo-therapy in the past and its future potential. J Indian Med Heritage 2010;1:49-72.
64. Yoga in siddha-central council for research in siddha. Available from: http://siddhacouncil.com/downloads/yoga_in_siddha.pdf. [Last accessed on 10 Dec 2019]
65. Arpan A Bhatt, Shweta Pandey, Brajesh Singh, Gauravi Vyas, Gyanendra Datta Shukla, Upasna Gulati. The role of yoga therapy in the management of bronchial asthma (Tamaka shwasa). Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2019;12:27-33.
66. Premalatha P, Kanniammal C, Valli G, Jaydeep Mahendra. Effect of physical exercise and yoga on blood pressure among school children. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2018;11:399-403.
67. Kumar R, Pal R. India achieves WHO recommended doctor population ratio: a call for paradigm shift in public health discourse. J Family Med Prim Care 2018;7:841–4.
68. Sharkar M. Ayush dept under-utilises funds allocated during last three years; 2013. http://www.pharmabiz.com/NewsDetails.aspx?aid=77870andsid=1 [Last accessed on 10 Dec 2019]
69. Health Division Planning Commission Government of India. Report of the Steering Committee on AYUSH for 12th Five Year Plan; 2012–17. Available from: http://planningcommission.gov.in/aboutus/committee/strgrp12/st_ayush0903.pdf [Last accessed on 10 Dec 2019]
70. Jain AK, Sharma BK. Developments in the field of ayurveda–past to present. Ayushdhara 2014;1:51–64.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.