A CRITICAL REVIEW AND LOCAL AUDIT OF THE PREVALENCE OF MENTAL ILL-HEALTH IN HEART FAILURE PATIENTS
Keywords:Independent prescribing pharmacist, Heart Failure, Depression, Anxiety, Primary Health Care, General Practice
Objective: To establish if depression results in poor adherence to therapy in patients with heart diseases.
Methods: This concept scoping study was conducted in two phases; the first was a systematic review of the literature, and the second part was local data analysis. Statistical analysis was performed using RevMan® V.5.3 (Cochrane Community).
Results: Patients who received multidisciplinary collaborative care showed significantly reduced major adverse cardiac outcomes in patients with cardiovascular diseases. They also demonstrated higher rates of self-reported remission of depression. The review also showed endpoint mortality after PCI was associated with patients having depression. Local population data showed that 26% of heart failure patients had mental ill health comorbidity, however, only 12% had a formal diagnosis recorded.
Conclusion: Depression is associated with poor cardiac outcomes in patients with coronary artery disease. It is widespread in patients with cardiovascular disease and must be screened for throughout the management plan.
Rugulies R. Depression as a predictor for coronary heart disease: a review and meta-analysis. Am J Prev Med 2002;23:51–61.
Samartzis L, Dimopoulos S, Tziongourou M, Nanas S. Effect of psychosocial interventions on quality of life in patients with chronic heart failure: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Card Fail 2013;19:125–34.
Meijer A, Conradi H, Bos E, Thombs B, Van Melle J, De Jonge P. Prognostic association of depression following myocardial infarction with mortality and cardiovascular events: a meta-analysis of 25 y of research. Gen Hosp Psychiat 2011;33:203–16.
Baumeister H, Hutter N, Bengel J. Psychological and pharmacological interventions for depression in patients with diabetes mellitus-a systematic cochrane review. Diabetic Med 2014;31:773–86.
Berkman L, Blumenthal J, Burg M, Carney M, Catellier D, Cowan J, et al. Enhancing recovery in coronary heart disease patients investigators (ENRICHD). Effects of treating depression and low perceived social support on clinical events after myocardial infarction: The enhancing recovery in coronary heart disease patients (ENRICHD) randomized trial. J Am Med Assoc 2003;289:3106–16.
Linden W. How many meta-analyses does it take to settle a question? Psychosom Med 2013;75:332–4.
Richards D, Hill J, Gask L, Lovell K, Chew-Graham C, Bower P, et al. Clinical effectiveness of collaborative care for depression in UK primary care (CADET): cluster randomised controlled trial. Br Med J 2013;347:f4913.
Sanchez K. Collaborative care in real-world settings: barriers and opportunities for sustainability. Patient Prefer Adher 2017;11:71-4.
Tully P, Baumeister H. Collaborative care for comorbid depression and coronary heart disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Br Med J Open 2015;5:e009128.
Morgan M, Coates M, Dunbar J, Reddy P, Schlicht K, Fuller J. The true blue model of collaborative care using practice nurses as case managers for depression alongside diabetes or heart disease: a randomized trial. Br Med J Open 2013;3:e002171.
Rollman B, Belnap B, LeMenager M, Mazumdar S, Schulberg H, Reynolds C. The Bypassing the Blues treatment protocol: stepped collaborative care for treating post-CABG depression. Psychosom Med 2009;71:217-30.
Davidson K, Bigger J, Burg M, Carney R, Chaplin W, Czajkowski S, et al. Centralized, stepped, patient preference-based treatment for patients with post-acute coronary syndrome depression: CODIACS vanguard randomized controlled trial. J Am Med Assoc Intern Med 2013;173:997-1004.
Huffman J, Mastromauro C, Beach S, Celano C, DuBois C, Healy B, et al. Collaborative care for depression and anxiety disorders in patients with recent cardiac events: the management of sadness and anxiety in cardiology (MOSAIC) randomized clinical trial. J Am Med Assoc Intern Med 2014;174:927-35.
Davidson K, Rieckmann N, Clemow L, Schwartz J, Shimbo D, Medina V, et al. Enhanced depression care for patients with acute coronary syndrome and persistent depressive symptoms; coronary psychosocial evaluation studies randomized controlled trial (COPES). Arch Intern Med 2010;170:600-8.
Huffman J, Mastromauro C, Sowden G, Wittmann C, Rodman R, Januzzi J. A collaborative care depression management program for cardiac inpatients: depression characteristics and in-hospital outcomes (SUCCEED). Psychosomat 2011;52:26–33.
De Jager T, Dulfer K, Radhoe S, Bergmann M, Daemen J, Van Domburg R, et al. Predictive value of depression and anxiety for long-term mortality: differences in outcome between acute coronary syndrome and stable angina pectoris. Int J Cardiol 2018;250:43-8.
Van Dijk M, Utens E, Dulfer K, Al-Qezweny M, van Geuns R, Daemen J, et al. Depression and anxiety symptoms as predictors of mortality in PCI patients at 10 y of follow-up. Eur J Prev Cardiol 2016;23:552–8.
Meyer T, Hussein S, Lange H, Herrmann Lingen C. Transient impact of baseline depression on mortality in patients with stable coronary heart disease during long-term follow-up. Clin Res Cardiol 2014;103:389–95.
Wang Z, Guo M, Si TM, Jiang M, Liu S, Liu Y, et al. Association of depression with adverse cardiovascular events after percutaneous coronary intervention. Coronary Artery Dis 2013;24:589–95.
Kroenke K, Spitzer RL, Williams JB. The PHQ-9: validity of a brief depression severity measure. J Gen Intern Med 2001;16:606–13.
Beck AT, Ward CH, Mendelson M, Mock J, Erbaugh J. An inventory for measuring depression. Arch Gen Psychiat 1961;4:561-71.
Snaith RP. The hospital anxiety and depression scale. Health Qual Life Outcomes 2003;1:29.
Sheehan DV, Lecrubier Y, Sheehan KH. The mini-international neuropsychiatric interview (M. I. N. I.): the development and validation of a structured diagnostic psychiatric interview for DSM-IV and ICD-10. J Clin Psychiat 1998;59 Suppl 20:22–57.
Ahmed M, Morrissey H, Ball PA. Mental ill-health and heart failure comorbidity. Int J Curr Pharm Res 2019;11:34931.