PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS, ANTIOXIDANT AND HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF ACTINIOPTERIS RADIATA
Objective: The medicinal plants have been using to treat ailments since ancient times. The recent advances in science and technology impel humans to evaluate medicinal plants therapeutic efficiency and isolation of bioactive compounds in pure forms before their use in development of new drugs and their derivatives. But even now, abundant medicinal plants unevaluated scientifically. The current study was aimed to explore phytochemical constituents, antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of Actiniopteris radiata root parts.
Methods: Standard procedures have been used to perform phytochemical analysis. Antioxidant activity was carried using In vitro methods on superoxide, hydroxyl, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals. Hepatoprotective activity was studied by paracetamol-induced liver toxicity on WISTAR albino rats. The parameters assessed were Aspartate aminotransferase (SGOT/AST), Alanine aminotransferase (SGPT/ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin levels.
Results: The tested extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate, and hydro-alcoholic) possess biologically active compounds such as sterols, terpenoids, glycosides, phenolics, alkaloids, flavonoids. The hydro-alcoholic extract has more phenolic contents (24.28±0.3) and flavonoid contents (22.68±0.6). The extracts showed dose dependent activity on tested free radicals and extracts showed more percentage inhibition at 320µg. The hydro-alcoholic extract showed more percentage inhibition i.e. 71.00±2.08 on DPPH free radical, 79.67±1.20 on hydroxyl free radical and 80.33±1.20 on superoxide free radical. As antioxidant activity of hexane and ethyl acetate extracts was less and they also showed less percentage protection on liver toxicity, hydro-alcoholic extract showed more percentage protection on biomedical enzyme levels of liver toxicity at high concentration i.e., 400 mg/kg b.w. The percentage protection on the enhancement of AST (SGOT), ALT (SGPT), ALP, and total bilirubin levels were 82.24%, 82.14%, 84.18%, and 82.85% are significant (P<0.01) as Liv52 shown percentage protection on the enhancement of Aspartate aminotransferase (SGOT), alanine aminotransferase (SGPT), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and total bilirubin levels were 93.58%, 92.83%, 94.67% and 93.57%.
Conclusion: The current study was aimed to explore phytochemical constituents, antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of Actiniopteris radiata root parts extracts. The outcome of the current research results provides scientific evidence of the traditional usage of Actiniopteris radiata.
2. The WHO cross-national study of health behavior in school-aged children from 35 countries: findings from 2001-2002. J Sch Health 2004;74:204–6.
3. Mozaffarian D, Hao T, Rimm EB, Willett W, Hu FB. Changes in diet and life style and long term weight gain in women and men. N Eng Med J 2011;364:2392–404.
4. Rao BG, Rao YV, Rao TM. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant capacity of Melochia corchorifolia extracts. Asian Pac J Trop Med 2013;6:537–43.
5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK535438/. [Last accessed on 01 Mar 2020]
6. Asrani SK, Devarbhavi H, Eaton J, Kamath PS. Burden of liver diseases in the world. J Hepatol 2019;70:151–71.
7. Kim JW, Park S, Lim CW, Lee K, Kim B. The role of air pollutants in initiating liver disease. Toxicol Res 2014;30:65–70.
8. Kim HJ, Min JY, Seo YS, Min KB. Association of ambient air pollution with increased liver enzymes in korean adults. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019;16:1213.
9. Hirschfield GM, Thain C, Walmsley M, Brownlee A, Jones DE. Liver disease in the UK. Lancet 2015;385:503.
10. Koparde AA, Doijad RC, Magdum CS. Natural products in drug discovery. Pharmacogn Med Plants 2019;1-19. Doi:10.5772/intechopen.82860
11. Zhang LH, Li J. Current situation and developing trends of modernization of traditional chinese medicine. J Zhejiang Univ Med Sci 2011;40:349–53.
12. Harvey AL, Edrada Ebel R, Quinn RJ. The re-emergence of natural products for drug discovery in the genomics era. Nat Rev Drug Discovery 2015;14:111–29.
13. Tansaz M, Tajadini H. Comparison of leiomyoma of modern medicine and traditional Persian medicine. J Evid Based Complement Altern Med 2016;21:160–3.
14. Yuan H, Ma Q, Ye L, Piao G. The traditional medicine and modern medicine from natural products. Molecules 2016;21:559.
15. Raul J Andrade, Aida Ortega Alonso, María Isabel Lucena. Drug-Induced Liver Injury Clinical Consortia: a global research response for a worldwide health challenge. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol 2016;12:589–93.
16. Harvey AL, Clark RL, Mackay SP, Johnston BF. Current strategies for drug discovery through natural products. Expert Opin Drug Discovery 2010;5:559–68.
17. Patridge E, Gareiss P, Kinch MS, Hoyer D. An analysis of FDA-approved drugs: Natural products and their derivatives. Drug Discovery Today 2016;21:204–7.
18. Khare CP. Indian herbal remedies: Rational western therapy, ayurvedic and other. Springer Link Publishers; 2004. p. 21–2.
19. The Wealth of India. Vol. 1. Council for Scientific and industrial Research, New Delhi; 2006. p. 69–70.
20. Trease G, Evans SM. Pharmacognosy. 15th ed. Bailer Tindal, London, Elsevier Publisher; 2002. p. 23–67.
21. Fazel S, Hamidreza M, Rouhollah G, Verdian Rizi M. Spectrophotometric determination of total alkaloids in some Iranian medicinal plants. Thai J Pharm Sci 2008;32:17–20.
22. Chandra S, Khan S, Avula B, Lata H, Yang MH, Ikhlas A Khan. Assessment of total phenolic and flavonoid content, antioxidant properties, and yield of aeroponically and conventionally grown leafy vegetables and fruit crops: a comparative study. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2014. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/253875
23. Mallikarjuna Rao T, Ganga Rao B, Venkateswara Rao Y. Antioxidant activity of Spilanthes acmella extracts. Int J Phytophamacol 2012;3:216–20.
24. Mc Cord JM, Fridovich I. Superoxide dismutase: an enzymic function for erythrocuprein (hemocuprien). J Biol Chem 1969;244:6049–55.
25. Elizabeth K, Rao MNA. Oxygen radical scavenging activity of curcumin. Int J Pharm 1990;58:237–40.
26. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Acute Oral Toxicity–Fixed Dose; 2001.
27. MR Talluri, Veda Priya G, GR Battu, KN Killari. Evaluation of hepatoprotective activity of Zanthoxylum armatum on paracetamol-induced liver toxicity in rats. Indian J Pharm Sci 2019;81:138–45.
28. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK195047 [Last accessed on 01 Mar 2020]
29. Sunshine JE, Meo N, Kassebaum NJ, Collison ML, Mokdad AH. Association of adverse effects of medical treatment with mortality in the United States: a secondary analysis of the global burden of diseases, injuries, and risk factors study. JAMA Netw Open 2019;2:e187041.
30. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK526106 [Last accessed on 01 Mar 2020]
31. Yoon E, Babar A, Choudhary M, Kutner M, Pyrsopoulos N. Acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity: a comprehensive update. J Clin Transl Hepatol 2016;4:131–42.
32. Newman DJ, Cragg GM. Natural products as sources of new drugs over the 30 y from 1981 to 2010. J Nat Prod 2012;75:311–35.
33. Li JW, Vederas JC. Drug discovery and natural products: end of an era or an endless frontier? Science 2009;325:161–5.
34. Li FS, Weng JK. Demystifying traditional herbal medicine with modern approach. Nat Plants 2017;3:17109.
35. Leonti M, Verpoorte R. Traditional mediterranean and European herbal medicines. J Ethnopharmacol 2017;199:161–7.
36. Seidl PR. Pharmaceuticals from natural products: current trends. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias 2002;74:145–50.
37. Medema MH, Fischbach MA. Computational approaches to natural product discovery. Nat Chem Biol 2015;11:639–48.
38. Panche AN, Diwan AD, Chandra SR. Flavonoids: an overview. J Nutr Sci 2016;5:e47.
39. Hussain G, Rasul A, Anwar H, Aziz N, Razzaq A, Wei Wei, et al. Role of plant derived alkaloids and their mechanism in neurodegenerative disorders. Int J Biol Sci 2018;14:341–57.
40. Muriel P. Role of free radicals in liver diseases. Hepatol Int 2009;3:526–36.
41. Murray KF. Drug-related hepatotoxicity and acute liver failure. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2008;47:395–405.
42. Karimi M, Heidarnia A, Ghofranipur F. Effective factors on using medication in aging by using healthy believe. J Arak Med Uni 2010;14;70–8.
43. Singh G, Schulthess D, Hughes N, Vannieuwenhuyse B, Kalra D. Real world big data for clinical research and drug development. Drug Discovery Today 2018;23:650–60.
44. Schmeller, Wink, T Schmeller, M Wink. Utilization of alkaloids in modern medicine. Springer, Heidelberg; 1998. p. 435–59.
45. Aquila G, Marracino L, Martino V, Calabria D, Campo G, Cristiana Caliceti, et al. The use of nutraceuticals to counteract atherosclerosis: the role of the notch pathway. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2019;3:1-30.
46. Weng JK, Philippe RN, Noel JP. The rise of chemodiversity in plants. Science 2012;336:1667–70.
47. Hotwani K, Baliga S, Sharma K. Phytodentistry: use of medicinal plants. Complement Integr Med 2014;11:233–51.
48. Chang J, Kim Y, Kwon HJ. Advances in identification and validation of protein targets of natural products without chemical modification. Nat Prod Rep 2016;33:719–30.
49. Okechukwu PN. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic effect of eicosane, pentadecane, octacosane, and heneicosane. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2020;13:29–35.
50. Sangeeta Rani, Kavita Gahlot, Arvind Kumar. Isolation, characterization, and docking studies of isolated compounds as antidiabetic molecules from Cressa cretica. Asian J Pharm Clin Res 2020;13:84–91.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.