THE POTENTIAL ROLE OF GENUS TINOSPORA IN WOUND HEALING: A REVIEW
Genus Tinospora has been used in traditional medicine throughout various parts of Asia, particularly in India, China, Thailand, Malaysia and Cambodia. Its ethnomedicinal uses include treatment for fever, cold, oral ulcer, headaches, diarrhoea, diabetes, digestive disorder and rheumatoid arthritis. Some of its ethnomedicinal uses have been justified via scientific studies, include antidiabetic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial effects. Recently, several studies have been initiated to investigate the role of Tinospora species in wound healing. This comprehensive review used updated information obtained from systematic literature search using PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct and Google Scholar, to assess the wound healing properties of eleven major Tinospora species namely, T. cordifolia, T. crispa, T. sagittata, T. sinensis, T. bakis, T. craveniana, T. tuberculata, T. capillipes, T. rumphii, T. smilacina, and T. baenzigeri. The information obtained revealed that only T. cordifolia and T. crispa have been reported on its wound-healing abilities. Studies demonstrated that T. cordifolia is associated with early re-epithelisation, enhanced tensile strength, increased granulation tissues and increased collagen contents. Whereas T. crispa is reported with wound healing activity through the elevated antioxidant enzymes and inflammation phase. Nevertheless, there is limited evidence on phytochemical constituents from plant extracts that contribute to the wound healing process and their underlying mechanisms. This review deduced the potential gaps for future research aiming to study the genus Tinospora as a potential wound healing agent.
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