PRESCRIPTION PATTERN AND USAGE OF ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS FOR TREATING DIABETIC FOOT INFECTIONS AT TERTIARY CARE CENTRE
Objective: Due to the uncertainty about optimal antibiotic treatment, and probably substantial variation in practice, the present study was carried out to determine the bacterial profiles of infected diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) and also to analyze the prescribing pattern of antibiotics used.
Methods: A prospective observational study was carried out in the department of General surgery at a tertiary care teaching hospital, Mangalore. Demographic details and treatment data of 78 patients were collected in a specially designed Proforma, and the data were analyzed using Microsoft Excel.
Results: According to Meggit-Wagner's classification, patients admitted with DFUs predominantly belonged to WAGNER 1 category (36%), followed by WAGNER 4 (26%) and WAGNER 2 (22%) categories. Out of 66 culture-positive specimens, 21 (31.8%) had monomicrobial flora, and 45 (68.2%) had polymicrobial flora. A total of 148 organisms were obtained from the specimens. The most common isolates were Staphylococcus aureus (22.3%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (17.5%). Ceftriaxone was the most commonly prescribed empirical antibiotic (29%), followed by linezolid (20%), piperacillin-tazobactam (20%), amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (13%), cefoperazone-sulbactam (11%). After the culture and sensitivity (C/S) results, antimicrobials were changed in 74.61% of patients in the preference of Linezolid (51%), Amikacin (27%), Levofloxacin (19%), Ciprofloxacin (17%), Piperacillin-tazobactam (13%), Cefixime (15%), Ceftriaxone (11%) among others. Clindamycin and metronidazole were used to cover anaerobic microorganisms.
Conclusion: Most of the microorganisms isolated from DFUs were resistant to many types of antibiotics. Gram-positive organisms were largely sensitive to linezolid and vancomycin, while Gram-negative organisms to amikacin and imipenem. Local treatment of wounds is essential.
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