PHYTOCHEMICAL PROFILES OF THREE TRADITIONAL MEDICINAL PLANTS AND ITS ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES
Objective: The objective of the current study was to compare the phytochemical composition and to evaluate the antibacterial properties of Cissus qudrangularis, Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Trigonella foenum-graecum against the bacterial strains Escherichia coli and Bacillus circulans.
Methods: Qualitative analysis and quantitative estimation of various phytochemical components were done using standard protocols. Antibacterial activity against gram-negative Escherichia coli and gram-positive Bacillus circulans was evaluated using standard protocol of agar well diffusion and disc diffusion assay. The zone of inhibition was calculated.
Results: Preliminary phytochemical analysis showed the presence of alkaloids, saponins and tannins in all three plant extracts. In quantitative estimation, Cinnamomum zeylanicum showed high alkaloid content (22%), Cissus qudrangularis showed high saponin content (6%) Trigonella foenum-graecum showed a high concentration (4.65 mg/g) of tannin. All the three plants showed moderate antimicrobial activity. The water extract of Cinnamomum zeylanicum showed the highest zone of inhibition (13 mm) against Escherichia coli and the water extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum showed the highest zone of inhibition (11 mm) against Bacillus circulans.
Conclusion: The result of this study supports the use of all the selected three medicinal plants as a source of antibacterial substance for the possible treatment of human pathogenic organisms. These plants can be further subjected to isolation of the therapeutic phytochemicals and further pharmacological evaluation.
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